11 research outputs found

    Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) network analysis of bacterial communities from samples with high and low fecal protease (FP) activity.

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    <p>Nodes represent high FP activity samples (<i>n</i>=13, blue circles), low FP activity samples (<i>n</i>=13, yellow circles) samples, and OTUs (white circles). Edges (lines) connecting samples with high FP activity nodes (blue edges) or low FP activity nodes (yellow edges) to OTUs indicate whether a given OTU was found in that sample. The clustering of blue and yellow nodes and edges indicates that samples with high FP activity share numerous OTUs in common, and segregate from the shared OTUs between low FP activity samples. </p

    Abundances of Family level taxa in samples with high (<i>n</i>=13) and low (<i>n</i>=13) FP activity.

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    <p>The composition and abundances of bacterial families differ between the microbiotas of fecal samples exhibiting high and low FP activity. </p

    Microbial richness of samples with high (<i>n</i>=13, blue) and low (<i>n</i>=13, yellow) FP activity.

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    <p>Both the number of observed bacterial species (based on species-level OTUs) and Shannon index of diversity are significantly lower in fecal samples with high compared to low protease activity (<i>p</i>=0.002). Error bars represent the standard error. </p

    Correlation of <i>Faecalibacterium prausnitzii</i> with FP activity.

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    <p><i>F. prausnitzii</i> exhibits a significant (<i>p</i>=0.01) negative correlation with FP activity. Blue and yellow circles indicate high and low FP activity samples used in previous analyses, respectively. </p

    Bacterial community composition analysis between samples with high (<i>n</i>=13) and low (<i>n</i>=13) FP activity.

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    <p>Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots of un-weighted and weighted UniFrac distances for samples with high (blue circles) and low (yellow squares) FP activity are shown. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) demonstrated a significant separation in the composition of fecal microbiotas between high and low FP activity samples using both un-weighted (<i>p</i>=0.001) and weighted (<i>p</i>=0.003) UniFrac distances. The R statistic (where R=1 and R=0 signifies differences and no differences between groups, respectively) is higher in the un-weighted analysis suggesting the separation between microbiotas is a result of both high and low abundances bacterial species.</p

    LXR protects from hepatic damage induced by an oleic-rich diet.

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    <p>(A) <i>Tnf</i>α, <i>Ccl2</i>, <i>F4/80</i>, <i>Cd68</i> and <i>Il1β</i> mRNA quantification assayed by qPCR. (B) Plasma activity of ALT and AST. (C) Plasma cholesterol and lathosterol levels analyzed by gas chromatography. Data are the mean±SEM of values measured in LXR+/+ and LXR-/- mice fed the REF or the OLIV diet. <sup>a</sup> Significant genotype effect. <sup>b</sup> Significant difference versus REF diet (n = 6 mice per group).</p

    LXR mediate the induction of lipogenesis induced by an oleic acid-rich diet.

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    <p>(A) Hepatic <i>Acly</i>, <i>Acaca</i>, <i>Acacb</i>, <i>Fasn</i>, <i>Elovl6</i>, <i>Scd1</i> mRNA levels quantified by qPCR. (B) Cytoplasmic protein expression levels of P-ACLY, ACLY, ACC, ELOVL6, SCD1, FASN AND β-ACTIN assayed by Western Blotting. (C) <i>Fads1</i>, <i>Fads2</i>, <i>Elovl5</i>, <i>Gpat</i>, <i>Pnpla3</i> and <i>Lpk</i> mRNA quantification assayed by qPCR. (D) <i>Srebp-1c</i> and <i>Chrebp</i> mRNA quantification assayed by qPCR. (E) Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression levels of LXR, SREBP-1c and ChREBP assayed by Western Blotting. Data are the mean±SEM of values measured in LXR+/+ and LXR-/- mice fed REF or OLIV diet. <sup>a</sup> Significant genotype effect. <sup>b</sup> Significant difference versus REF diet (n = 6 mice per group).</p

    High oleic acid diet induces hepatic steatosis in LXR+/+ but not in LXR-/- mice.

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    <p>(A) Representative Oil Red O-stained frozen sections of liver from mice of both genotypes fed the REF or the OLIV diet (Scale bars: 100 μm). Neutral lipids appear in red. (B) Liver triglycerides, cholesterol and cholesterol esters measured by gas chromatography. Data are the mean±SEM of values measured in LXR+/+ and LXR-/- mice fed the REF or the OLIV diet. <sup>a</sup> Significant genotype effect. <sup>b</sup> Significant difference versus REF diet (n = 6 mice per group).</p
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