1,052 research outputs found

    Optical quality assurance of GEM foils

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    An analysis software was developed for the high aspect ratio optical scanning system in the Detec- tor Laboratory of the University of Helsinki and the Helsinki Institute of Physics. The system is used e.g. in the quality assurance of the GEM-TPC detectors being developed for the beam diagnostics system of the SuperFRS at future FAIR facility. The software was tested by analyzing five CERN standard GEM foils scanned with the optical scanning system. The measurement uncertainty of the diameter of the GEM holes and the pitch of the hole pattern was found to be 0.5 {\mu}m and 0.3 {\mu}m, respectively. The software design and the performance are discussed. The correlation between the GEM hole size distribution and the corresponding gain variation was studied by comparing them against a detailed gain mapping of a foil and a set of six lower precision control measurements. It can be seen that a qualitative estimation of the behavior of the local variation in gain across the GEM foil can be made based on the measured sizes of the outer and inner holes.Comment: 12 pages, 29 figure

    Evidence for non-exponential elastic proton proton differential cross-section at low vertical bar t vertical bar and ‚ąö s = 8 TeV by TOTEM

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    The TOTEM experiment has made a precise measurement of the elastic proton proton differential cross-section at the centre-of-mass energy root s = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the beta* = 90 m optics. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remain below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This unprecedented precision allows to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 <vertical bar t vertical bar <0.2 GeV2 with a significance greater than 7 sigma. Two extended parametrisations, with quadratic and cubic polynomials in the exponent, are shown to be well compatible with the data. Using them for the differential cross-section extrapolation to t = 0, and further applying the optical theorem, yields total cross-section estimates of (101.5 +/- 2.1) mb and (101.9 +/- 2.1) mb, respectively, in agreement with previous TOTEM measurements. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    First measurement of elastic, inelastic and total cross-section at ‚ąös = 13TeV by TOTEM and overview of cross-section data at LHC energies : TOTEM Collaboration

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    The TOTEM collaboration has measured the proton- proton total cross section at v s = 13 TeV with a luminosity- independent method. Using dedicated ss * = 90m beam optics, the Roman Pots were inserted very close to the beam. The inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 telescopes during the same LHC fill. After applying the optical theorem the total proton- proton cross section is stot = (110.6 +/- 3.4) mb, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method also allows one to derive the luminosity- independent elastic and inelastic cross sections: sel = (31.0 +/- 1.7) mband sinel = (79.5 +/- 1.8) mb.Peer reviewe

    Diffraction and Total Cross-Section at the Tevatron and the LHC

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    At the Tevatron, the total p_bar-p cross-section has been measured by CDF at 546 GeV and 1.8 TeV, and by E710/E811 at 1.8 TeV. The two results at 1.8 TeV disagree by 2.6 standard deviations, introducing big uncertainties into extrapolations to higher energies. At the LHC, the TOTEM collaboration is preparing to resolve the ambiguity by measuring the total p-p cross-section with a precision of about 1 %. Like at the Tevatron experiments, the luminosity-independent method based on the Optical Theorem will be used. The Tevatron experiments have also performed a vast range of studies about soft and hard diffractive events, partly with antiproton tagging by Roman Pots, partly with rapidity gap tagging. At the LHC, the combined CMS/TOTEM experiments will carry out their diffractive programme with an unprecedented rapidity coverage and Roman Pot spectrometers on both sides of the interaction point. The physics menu comprises detailed studies of soft diffractive differential cross-sections, diffractive structure functions, rapidity gap survival and exclusive central production by Double Pomeron Exchange.Peer reviewe

    First Results from the TOTEM Experiment

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    The first physics results from the TOTEM experiment are here reported, concerning the measurements of the total, differential elastic, elastic and inelastic pp cross-section at the LHC energy of s\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, obtained using the luminosity measurement from CMS. A preliminary measurement of the forward charged particle ő∑\eta distribution is also shown.Comment: Conference Proceeding. MPI@LHC 2010: 2nd International Workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions at the LHC. Glasgow (UK), 29th of November to the 3rd of December 201

    Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at s=7\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV^2. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV^2,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is measured to be (98.3 +- 0.2(stat) +- 2.8(syst)) mb.Comment: Proceedings of the XLI International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. Accepted for publication in Prog. Theor. Phy

    Performance of the TOTEM Detectors at the LHC

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    The TOTEM Experiment is designed to measure the total proton-proton cross-section with the luminosity-independent method and to study elastic and diffractive pp scattering at the LHC. To achieve optimum forward coverage for charged particles emitted by the pp collisions in the interaction point IP5, two tracking telescopes, T1 and T2, are installed on each side of the IP in the pseudorapidity region 3.1 < = |eta | < = 6.5, and special movable beam-pipe insertions - called Roman Pots (RP) - are placed at distances of +- 147 m and +- 220 m from IP5. This article describes in detail the working of the TOTEM detector to produce physics results in the first three years of operation and data taking at the LHC.Comment: 40 pages, 31 figures, submitted to Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    LHC Optics Measurement with Proton Tracks Detected by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM Experiment

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    Precise knowledge of the beam optics at the LHC is crucial to fulfil the physics goals of the TOTEM experiment, where the kinematics of the scattered protons is reconstructed with the near-beam telescopes -- so-called Roman Pots (RP). Before being detected, the protons' trajectories are influenced by the magnetic fields of the accelerator lattice. Thus precise understanding of the proton transport is of key importance for the experiment. A novel method of optics evaluation is proposed which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered protons observed in the RPs. Theoretical predictions, as well as Monte Carlo studies, show that the residual uncertainty of this optics estimation method is smaller than 0.25 percent.Comment: 20 pages, 11 figures, 5 figures, to be submitted to New J. Phy

    Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at LHC

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    The first double diffractive cross-section measurement in the very forward region has been carried out by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC with center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s)=7 TeV. By utilizing the very forward TOTEM tracking detectors T1 and T2, which extend up to |eta|=6.5, a clean sample of double diffractive pp events was extracted. From these events, we measured the cross-section sigma_DD =(116 +- 25) mub for events where both diffractive systems have 4.7 <|eta|_min < 6.5 .Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, submitted for publicatio
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