8,002 research outputs found

    Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

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    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described

    A new approach to upscaling fracture network models while preserving geostatistical and geomechanical characteristics

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    A new approach to upscaling two-dimensional fracture network models is proposed for preserving geostatistical and geomechanical characteristics of a smaller-scale “source” fracture pattern. First, the scaling properties of an outcrop system are examined in terms of spatial organization, lengths, connectivity, and normal/shear displacements using fractal geometry and power law relations. The fracture pattern is observed to be nonfractal with the fractal dimension D ≈ 2, while its length distribution tends to follow a power law with the exponent 2 < a < 3. To introduce a realistic distribution of fracture aperture and shear displacement, a geomechanical model using the combined finite-discrete element method captures the response of a fractured rock sample with a domain size L = 2 m under in situ stresses. Next, a novel scheme accommodating discrete-time random walks in recursive self-referencing lattices is developed to nucleate and propagate fractures together with their stress- and scale-dependent attributes into larger domains of up to 54 m × 54 m. The advantages of this approach include preserving the nonplanarity of natural cracks, capturing the existence of long fractures, retaining the realism of variable apertures, and respecting the stress dependency of displacement-length correlations. Hydraulic behavior of multiscale growth realizations is modeled by single-phase flow simulation, where distinct permeability scaling trends are observed for different geomechanical scenarios. A transition zone is identified where flow structure shifts from extremely channeled to distributed as the network scale increases. The results of this paper have implications for upscaling network characteristics for reservoir simulation

    Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation

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    The results of a static acoustic and aerodynamic performance, model-scale test program on coannular unsuppressed and multielement fan suppressed nozzle configurations are summarized. The results of the static acoustic tests show a very beneficial interaction effect. When the measured noise levels were compared with the predicted noise levels of two independent but equivalent conical nozzle flow streams, noise reductions for the unsuppressed coannular nozzles were of the order of 10 PNdB; high levels of suppression (8 PNdB) were still maintained even when only a small amount of core stream flow was used. The multielement fan suppressed coannular nozzle tests showed 15 PNdB noise reductions and up to 18 PNdB noise reductions when a treated ejector was added. The static aerodynamic performance tests showed that the unsuppressed coannular plug nozzles obtained gross thrust coefficients of 0.972, with 1.2 to 1.7 percent lower levels for the multielement fan-suppressed coannular flow nozzles. For the first time anywhere, laser velocimeter velocity profile measurements were made on these types of nozzle configurations and with supersonic heated flow conditions. Measurements showed that a very rapid decay in the mean velocity occurs for the nozzle tested

    Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation: Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Model design and aerodynamic test results

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    The selection procedure is described which was used to arrive at the configurations tested, and the performance characteristics of the test nozzles are given

    Observation of the rare decay B+ -> K+π0π0 and measurement of the quasi-two-body contributions B+ -> K*(892)+π0, B+ -> f0(980)K+, and B+ -> χc0K+

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    We report an analysis of charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K(+) pi(0)pi(0), using a data sample of (470.9 +/- 2.8) x 10(6) B (B) over bar events collected with the BABAR detector at the Y(4S) resonance. We observe an excess of signal events, with a significance above 10 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties, and measure the branching fraction and CP asymmetry to be B(B(+) -> K(+) pi(0)pi(0)) = (16.2 +/- 1.2 +/- 1.5) x 10(-6) and A(CP)(B(+) -> K(+) pi(0)pi(0)) = -0.06 +/- 0.06 +/- 0.04, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Additionally, we study the contributions of the B(+) -> K*(892)(+) pi(0), B(+) -> f(0)(980)K(+), and B(+) -> chi(c0)K(+) quasi-two-body decays. We report the world's best measurements of the branching fraction and CP asymmetry of the B(+) -> K(+) pi(0)pi(0) and B(+) -> K(+)(892)(+) pi(0) channels

    How biased are maximum entropy models?

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    High-power operation of a K-band second harmonic gyroklystron

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    Amplification studies of a two-cavity second-harmonic gyroklystron are reported. A magnetron injection gun produces a 440 kV, 200–245 A, 1 μs beam with an average perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio slightly less than 1. The TE011 input cavity is driven near 9.88 GHz and the TE021 output cavity resonates near 19.76 GHz. Peak powers exceeding 21 MW are achieved with an efficiency near 21% and a large signal gain above 25 dB. This performance represents the current state of the art for gyroklystrons in terms of the peak power normalized to the output wavelength squared