8 research outputs found

    The Impact of Obesity on Employment Participation and Earnings among Working-Age Women in Canada: Evidence from the NPHS Longitudinal Data

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    Background: The direct medical care costs attributable to obesity are well-known, but little is known about the indirect costs of obesity. In particular, less is known about the impact of obesity on employment participation and earnings, especially among women in Canada. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings, if employed, among Canadian women. Methods: Data were taken from the last six cycles of the National Population Health Survey from 2000/01-2010/11 longitudinal cohort data from women aged 18-53 years. The association between obesity and labour market participation was analyzed using pooled, random-effects and fixed-effects regression modeling techniques. The association between obesity and earnings (wage and income) was analyzed using pooled, truncated random-effects and truncated fixed-effects regression models. Results: Wage rate and annual income were found to be negatively associated with obesity. The negative association persisted between obesity and annual income even after accounting for individual-specific effects in the regression analysis. The effect of obesity on employment participation was not significant once health and lifestyle variables were controlled for. Conclusions: This longitudinal analysis of Canadian women demonstrated that obesity has a negative effect on earnings and this effect remains statistically significant even after controlling for individual-specific heterogeneity

    Women’s Experiences of Accessing Breastfeeding and Perinatal Health Support in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: An Interpretive Description Study

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    Background: Women experiencing intimate partner violence are at a heightened risk of negative perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes. This study explored the experiences of accessing breastfeeding support for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. A study of five in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed at 12-weeks postpartum with breastfeeding mothers with a history of intimate partner violence. Findings: Women expressed difficulties in accessing a healthcare provider who had specialized skill in breastfeeding support. Trust in their healthcare provider, built through displays of compassion and competence, was important to mitigate obstacles experienced during care access for this population. Trauma-and-violence-informed care principles were beneficial to the development of the therapeutic relationship in perinatal care. Women placed value on breastfeeding support received from both healthcare providers and social supports, which impacted mothers’ perceived breastfeeding support and self-efficacy. Further, mothers described increased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy after engaging in a trauma-and-violence-informed care program aimed at supporting breastfeeding. Conclusions: Trauma-informed care may aid in the development of trust in the therapeutic relationship, which in turn impacts access to breastfeeding support and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The inclusion of trauma-and-violence informed principles in perinatal care may be effective at mitigating barriers to access for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. health care on how to employ trauma-informed breastfeeding care to may lead to better support for this population

    Experiences of At-Risk Women in Accessing Breastfeeding Social Support During the Covid-19 Pandemic

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    Background: With strict public health measures implemented in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many breastfeeding parents, who are within an at-risk population, have experienced limited formal and/or informal breastfeeding social support. In the Canadian context, the experiences of these women is unknown. Research Aim: To explore the experiences of at-risk postpartum breastfeeding women in accessing formal and informal breastfeeding social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal interpretive description study using mixed methods. Data were gathered using an online survey and one 52‚Äď112-min semi-structured interview at 12-weeks postpartum. At-risk breastfeeding participants were those who lack social support and had at least one of the following: age \u3c 25 years; experiencing or had experienced intimate partner violence; or of low income. We sought participants‚Äô experiences of accessing breastfeeding social support during the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic/lockdown. Seven participants completed the survey and the interview. Results: Participants identified that the COVID-19 pandemic created barriers to accessing formal and informal breastfeeding social support, which stemmed from public health restrictions and difficulties communicating online with families and healthcare providers. Additionally, participants identified that the COVID-19 pandemic/lockdowns facilitated feelings of connectedness, protection, and resiliency. Conclusion: We provide preliminary insight into the experiences of trying to access breastfeeding social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future researchers should seek to prioritize improved communication and resources in supporting breastfeeding during COVID-19 and future pandemics/lockdowns

    Omics Multi-Layers Networks Provide Novel Mechanistic and Functional Insights Into Fat Storage and Lipid Metabolism in Poultry

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    Fatty acid metabolism in poultry has a major impact on production and disease resistance traits. According to the high rate of interactions between lipid metabolism and its regulating properties, a holistic approach is necessary. To study omics multilayers of adipose tissue and identification of genes and miRNAs involved in fat metabolism, storage and endocrine signaling pathways in two groups of broiler chickens with high and low abdominal fat, as well as high-throughput techniques, were used. The gene‚ÄďmiRNA interacting bipartite and metabolic-signaling networks were reconstructed using their interactions. In the analysis of microarray and RNA-Seq data, 1,835 genes were detected by comparing the identified genes with significant expression differences (p.adjust < 0.01, fold change ‚Č• 2 and ‚ȧ ‚ąí2). Then, by comparing between different data sets, 34 genes and 19 miRNAs were detected as common and main nodes. A literature mining approach was used, and seven genes were identified and added to the common gene set. Module finding revealed three important and functional modules, which were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, Alzheimer‚Äôs disease metabolic pathway, adipocytokine, insulin, PI3K‚ÄďAkt, mTOR, and AMPK signaling pathway. This approach revealed a new insight to better understand the biological processes associated with adipose tissue

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis (November 2019‚ÄďJune 2021)

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    Abstract Background Pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to distinguish from other viral and bacterial etiologies. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 which potentially acts as a catalyst for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis during the first 18¬†months of the pandemic to quantify the prevalence and types of resistant co-infecting organisms in patients with COVID-19 and explore differences across hospital and geographic settings. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (BioSIS), and Scopus from November 1, 2019 to May 28, 2021 to identify relevant articles pertaining to resistant co-infections in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Patient- and study-level analyses were conducted. We calculated pooled prevalence estimates of co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms using random effects models. Stratified meta-analysis by hospital and geographic setting was also performed to elucidate any differences. Results Of 1331 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1959 unique isolates were identified with 29% (569) resistant organisms identified. Co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms ranged from 0.2 to 100% among included studies. Pooled prevalence of co-infection with resistant bacterial and fungal organisms was 24% (95% CI 8‚Äď40%; n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ25 studies: I2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ99%) and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1‚Äď0.6%; n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ8 studies: I2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ78%), respectively. Among multi-drug resistant organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multi-drug resistant Candida auris were most commonly reported. Stratified analyses found higher proportions of AMR outside of Europe and in ICU settings, though these results were not statistically significant. Patient-level analysis demonstrated‚ÄČ>‚ÄČ50% (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ58) mortality, whereby all but 6 patients were infected with a resistant organism. Conclusions During the first 18¬†months of the pandemic, AMR prevalence was high in COVID-19 patients and varied by hospital and geography although there was substantial heterogeneity. Given the variation in patient populations within these studies, clinical settings, practice patterns, and definitions of AMR, further research is warranted to quantify AMR in COVID-19 patients to improve surveillance programs, infection prevention and control practices and antimicrobial stewardship programs globally

    Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Against COVID-19 Among Hospitalized Adults Aged ‚Č•65 Years ‚ÄĒ United States, January‚ÄďMarch 2021

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    Adults aged ‚Č•65 years are at increased risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19 and were identified as a priority group to receive the first COVID-19 vaccines approved for use under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in the United States (1-3). In an evaluation at 24 hospitals in 14 states,* the effectiveness of partial or full vaccination‚Ć with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was assessed among adults aged ‚Č•65 years. Among 417 hospitalized adults aged ‚Č•65 years (including 187 case-patients and 230 controls), the median age was 73 years, 48% were female, 73% were non-Hispanic White, 17% were non-Hispanic Black, 6% were Hispanic, and 4% lived in a long-term care facility. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ‚Č•65 years was estimated to be 94% (95% confidence interval [CI]&nbsp;=&nbsp;49%-99%) for full vaccination and 64% (95% CI&nbsp;=&nbsp;28%-82%) for partial vaccination. These findings are consistent with efficacy determined from clinical trials in the subgroup of adults aged ‚Č•65 years (4,5). This multisite U.S. evaluation under real-world conditions suggests that vaccination provided protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ‚Č•65 years. Vaccination is a critical tool for reducing severe COVID-19 in groups at high risk
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