4,639 research outputs found

    Vanishing Dimensions and Planar Events at the LHC

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    We propose that the effective dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the length scale we are probing. As the length scale increases, new dimensions open up. At short scales the space is lower dimensional; at the intermediate scales the space is three-dimensional; and at large scales, the space is effectively higher dimensional. This setup allows for some fundamental problems in cosmology, gravity, and particle physics to be attacked from a new perspective. The proposed framework, among the other things, offers a new approach to the cosmological constant problem and results in striking collider phenomenology and may explain elongated jets observed in cosmic-ray data.Comment: v1: 5 pages revtex, 1 eps figure; v2: includes extensive discussion on violation of Lorentz invariance, featured in a Nature editorial [Nature 466 (2010) 426] http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100720/full/466426a.html; v3: discussion expanded, matching journal versio

    Discovering New Physics in the Decays of Black Holes

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    If the scale of quantum gravity is near a TeV, the LHC will be producing one black hole (BH) about every second, thus qualifying as a BH factory. With the Hawking temperature of a few hundred GeV, these rapidly evaporating BHs may produce new, undiscovered particles with masses ~100 GeV. The probability of producing a heavy particle in the decay depends on its mass only weakly, in contrast with the exponentially suppressed direct production. Furthemore, BH decays with at least one prompt charged lepton or photon correspond to the final states with low background. Using the Higgs boson as an example, we show that it may be found at the LHC on the first day of its operation, even with incomplete detectors.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Four lectures on secant varieties

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    This paper is based on the first author's lectures at the 2012 University of Regina Workshop "Connections Between Algebra and Geometry". Its aim is to provide an introduction to the theory of higher secant varieties and their applications. Several references and solved exercises are also included.Comment: Lectures notes to appear in PROMS (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics), Springer/Birkhause

    Persistent Transport Barrier on the West Florida Shelf

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    Analysis of drifter trajectories in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the existence of a region on the southern portion of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) that is not visited by drifters that are released outside of the region. This so-called ``forbidden zone'' (FZ) suggests the existence of a persistent cross-shelf transport barrier on the southern portion of the WFS. In this letter a year-long record of surface currents produced by a Hybrid-Coordinate Ocean Model simulation of the WFS is used to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), which reveal the presence of a robust and persistent cross-shelf transport barrier in approximately the same location as the boundary of the FZ. The location of the cross-shelf transport barrier undergoes a seasonal oscillation, being closer to the coast in the summer than in the winter. A month-long record of surface currents inferred from high-frequency (HF) radar measurements in a roughly 60 km ×\times 80 km region on the WFS off Tampa Bay is also used to identify LCSs, which reveal the presence of robust transient transport barriers. While the HF-radar-derived transport barriers cannot be unambiguously linked to the boundary of the FZ, this analysis does demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring transport barriers on the WFS using a HF-radar-based measurement system. The implications of a persistent cross-shelf transport barrier on the WFS for the development of harmful algal blooms on the shoreward side of the barrier are considered.Comment: Submitted to Geophysical Research Letter