3,680 research outputs found

    High Rate Performance of Drift Tubes

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    This article describes calculations and measurements of space charge effects due to high rate irradiation in high resolution drift tubes. Two main items are studied: the reduction of the gas gain and changes of the drift time. Whereas the gain reduction is similar for all gases and unavoidable, the drift time changes depend on the kind of gas that is used. The loss in resolution due to high particle rate can be minimized with a suitable gas. This behaviour is calculable, allowing predictions for new gas mixtures.Comment: 20 pages, submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods

    A Gas Monitoring Chamber for the ATLAS Muon Monitored Drift Tube(MDT) System

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    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer incorporates MDT precision chambers used for precise track reconstruction. Since the MDT resolution depends crucially on the electron drift velocity in the operating gas, a monitoring chamber is designed and constructed to precisely monitor the gas properties in real time. This chamber continuously samples the operating gas and measures the electron drift velocity in the operating gas over a wide range of electric field strength with very high resolution and short response time. In order to validate the feasibility and optimize the design, extensive simulations based on Garfield and 3D/2D finite element method(FEM) are done, which include mechanics, electrostatics, thermodynamics and computational fluid dynamics(CFD). This monitoring chamber enables the measurement of the drift velocity spectra over a varying electric field with a wide range, then very small changes and contaminations of the gas mixture can be detected. Results obtained at CERN and in the lab will be presented as well

    Intranasally Applied Neuropeptide S Shifts a High-Anxiety Electrophysiological Endophenotype in the Ventral Hippocampus towards a "Normal"-Anxiety One

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    The neurobiological basis of pathological anxiety and the improvement of its pharmacological treatment are a matter of intensive investigation. Here, using electrophysiological techniques in brain slices from animals of the high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) and normal anxiety-related behavior (NAB) mouse model, we show that basal neurotransmission at ventral hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses is weaker in HAB compared to NAB mice. We further demonstrate that paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at these synapses are more pronounced in slices from HAB animals. Based on previous findings, we also examined whether intranasal delivery of neuropeptide S (NPS), which increasingly emerges as a potential novel treatment option for anxiety symptoms occurring in a variety of diseases like anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression, impacts on the high-anxiety electrophysiological endophenotype in HAB mice. Strikingly, we detected enhanced basal neurotransmission and reduced PPF and LTP in slices from NPS-treated HAB animals. Collectively, our study uncovers a multifaceted high-anxiety neurophysiological endophenotype in the murine ventral hippocampus and provides the first evidence that an intranasally applied neuropeptide can shift such an endophenotype in an anxiety-regulating brain structure towards a "normal"-anxiety one

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid and blood concentrations of oxytocin following its intranasal administration in humans

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    There has been an unprecedented interest in the modulatory effects of intranasal oxytocin on human social cognition and behaviour, however as yet no study has actually demonstrated that this modality of administration increases concentrations of the peptide in the brain as well as blood in humans. Here using combined blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling in subjects receiving either 24 IU of oxytocin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 4) we have shown that oxytocin levels significantly increased in both plasma and CSF. However, whereas oxytocin plasma concentrations peaked at 15 min after intranasal administration and decreased after 75 min, CSF concentrations took up to 75 min to reach a significant level. Moreover, there was no correlation (r = <0.10) between oxytocin plasma and CSF concentrations. Together, these data provide crucial insights into the plasma and CSF kinetics of intranasally administered oxytocin

    Subglacial hydrology from high-resolution ice-flow simulations of the Rhine Glacier during the Last Glacial Maximum: a proxy for glacial erosion

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    At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Rhine Glacier complex (Rhine and Linth glaciers) formed large piedmont lobes extending north into the Swiss and German Alpine forelands. Numerous overdeepened valleys there were formed by repeated glaciations. A characteristic of these overdeepened valleys is their location close to the LGM ice margin, away from the Alps. Numerical models of ice flow of the Rhine Glacier indicate a poor fit between the sliding distance, a proxy for glacial erosion, and the location of these overdeepenings. Calculations of the hydraulic potential based on the computed time-dependent ice surface elevations of the Rhine Glacier lobe obtained from a high-resolution thermo-mechanically coupled Stokes flow model are used to estimate the location of subglacial water drainage routes. Results indicate that the subglacial water discharge is high and focused along glacial valleys and overdeepenings when water pressure is equal to the ice overburden pressure. These conditions are necessary for subglacial water to remove basal sediments, expose fresh bedrock, and favor further erosion by quarrying and abrasion. Knowledge of the location of paleo-subglacial water drainage routes may be useful to understand patterns of subglacial erosion beneath paleo-ice masses that do not otherwise relate to the sliding of ice. Comparison of the erosion pattern from subglacial meltwater with those from quarrying and abrasion shows the importance of subglacial water flow in the formation of distal overdeepenings in the Swiss lowlands.</p

    The Optical Alignment System of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Endcaps

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    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of over a thousand muon precision chambers, arranged in three concentrical cylinders in the barrel region, and in four wheels in each of the two endcaps. The endcap wheels are located between 7m and 22m from the interaction point, and have diameters between 13m and 24m. Muon chambers are equipped with a complex on-line optical alignment system to monitor their positions and deformations during ATLAS data-taking. We describe the layout of the endcap part of the alignment system and the design and calibration of the optical sensors, as well as the various software components. About 1% of the system has been subjected to performance tests in the H8 beam line at CERN, and results of these tests are discussed. The installation and commissioning of the full system in the ATLAS cavern is well underway, and results from approximately half of the system indicate that we will reach the ambitious goal of a 40mu alignment accuracy, required for reconstructing final-state muons at the highest expected energies

    Determinação de nutrientes em rações de peixe para controle de qualidade.

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    Atividade voltada ao conhecimento da variabilidade das rações de peixes comercializadas está em desenvolvimento

    Measurement of the proton and deuteron structure functions, F2p and F2d, and of the ratio sigma(L)/sigma(T)

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    The muon-proton and muon-deuteron inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross sections were measured in the kinematic range 0.002 < x < 0.60 and 0.5 < Q2 < 75 GeV2 at incident muon energies of 90, 120, 200 and 280 GeV. These results are based on the full data set collected by the New Muon Collaboration, including the data taken with a small angle trigger. The extracted values of the structure functions F2p and F2d are in good agreement with those from other experiments. The data cover a sufficient range of y to allow the determination of the ratio of the longitudinally to transversely polarised virtual photon absorption cross sections, R= sigma(L)/sigma(T), for 0.002 < x < 0.12 . The values of R are compatible with a perturbative QCD prediction; they agree with earlier measurements and extend to smaller x.Comment: In this replacement the erroneously quoted R values in tables 3-6 for x>0.12, and R1990 values in tables 5-6 for all x, have been corrected, and the cross sections in tables 3-4 have been adapted. Everything else, including the structure functions F2, remained unchanged. 22 pages, LateX, including figures, with two .sty files, and three separate f2tab.tex files for the F2-tables. Accepted for publication in Nucl.Phys.B 199

    Human microRNA hsa-miR-125a-5p interferes with expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigen

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    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level, playing a crucial role in cell differentiation and development. Recently, some reports have shown that a limited number of mammalian microRNAs are also involved in anti-viral defense. In this study, the analysis of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome by the computer program MiRanda led to the identification of seven sites that are potential targets for human liver microRNAs. These sites were found to be clustered in a 995-bp segment within the viral polymerase ORF and the overlapping surface antigen ORF, and conserved among the most common HBV subtypes. The HBV genomic targets were then subjected to a validation test based on cultured hepatic cells (HepG2, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) and luciferase reporter genes. In this test, one of the selected microRNAs, hsa-miR-125a-5p, was found to interact with the viral sequence and to suppress the reporter activity markedly. The microRNA was then shown to interfere with the viral translation, down-regulating the expression of the surface antigen. Overall, these results support the emerging concept that some mammalian microRNAs play a role in virus-host interaction. Furthermore, they provide the basis for the development of new strategies for anti-HBV intervention
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