202 research outputs found

    Parity Problem With A Cellular Automaton Solution

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    The parity of a bit string of length NN is a global quantity that can be efficiently compute using a global counter in O(N){O} (N) time. But is it possible to find the parity using cellular automata with a set of local rule tables without using any global counter? Here, we report a way to solve this problem using a number of r=1r=1 binary, uniform, parallel and deterministic cellular automata applied in succession for a total of O(N2){O} (N^2) time.Comment: Revtex, 4 pages, final version accepted by Phys.Rev.

    Repeated Administration of Norbinaltorphimine Produces Cumulative Kappa Opioid Receptor Inactivation

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    Kappa receptor activation by dynorphins contributes to the anxiogenic, dysphoric, and cognitive disrupting effects of repeated stress, suggesting that kappa receptor antagonists might have therapeutic utility in the treatment of stress disorders. Three classes of kappa antagonists have been distinguished: non-selective, selective-competitive (readily reversible), and non-competitive (receptor-inactivating); however, which would be the most effective medication has not been established. To assess the utility of receptor inactivating antagonists, we tested the effects of a range of doses in both male and female mice. As previously established, the antinociceptive effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 were blocked by a single injection of the long-acting antagonist norbinatorphimine (norBNI) (10 mg/kg i.p.) in male mice. Ten to 20-fold lower doses of norBNI were ineffective after a single administration, but daily administration of 1.0 or 0.5 mg/kg for 5 days completely blocked U50,488 antinociceptive effects. Daily administration of 0.1 mg/kg norBNI produced slowly accumulating inhibition and completely blocked the antinociceptive effect of U50,488 after 20–30 days. Estrogen reduces female sensitivity to kappa opioid effects, but 30 days of 0.1 mg/kg norBNI completely blocked U50,488 analgesia in ovariectomized mice. Receptor inactivation in both male and female mice treated for 30 days with 0.1 mg/kg norBNI persisted for at least 1-week. These results suggest that receptor-inactivating kappa antagonists are effective in both males and females when given at 100-fold lower doses than typically administered in preclinical studies. The enhanced safety of this low-dosing protocol has important clinical implications if receptor inactivating kappa antagonists advance in medication development

    CRF1-R Activation of the Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid System in the Mouse Basolateral Amygdala Mediates Anxiety-Like Behavior

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    Stress is a complex human experience and having both rewarding and aversive motivational properties. The adverse effects of stress are well documented, yet many of underlying mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Here we report that the anxiogenic properties of stress are encoded by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin acting in the basolateral amygdala. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that the anxiogenic-like effects of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) were triggered by CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system. Central CRF administration significantly reduced the percent open-arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The reduction in open-arm time was blocked by pretreatment with the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI), and was not evident in mice lacking the endogenous KOR ligand dynorphin. The CRF1-R agonist stressin 1 also significantly reduced open-arm time in the EPM, and this decrease was blocked by norBNI. In contrast, the selective CRF2-R agonist urocortin III did not affect open arm time, and mice lacking CRF2-R still showed an increase in anxiety-like behavior in response to CRF injection. However, CRF2-R knockout animals did not develop CRF conditioned place aversion, suggesting that CRF1-R activation may mediate anxiety and CRF2-R may encode aversion. Using a phosphoselective antibody (KORp) to identify sites of dynorphin action, we found that CRF increased KORp-immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of wildtype, but not in mice pretreated with the selective CRF1-R antagonist, antalarmin. Consistent with the concept that acute stress or CRF injection-induced anxiety was mediated by dynorphin release in the BLA, local injection of norBNI blocked the stress or CRF-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior; whereas norBNI injection in a nearby thalamic nucleus did not. The intersection of stress-induced CRF and the dynorphin/KOR system in the BLA was surprising, and these results suggest that CRF and dynorphin/KOR systems may coordinate stress-induced anxiety behaviors and aversive behaviors via different mechanisms

    Evaluating operational AVHRR sea surface temperature data at the coastline using surfers

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    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an essential climate variable that can be measured routinely from Earth Observation (EO) with high temporal and spatial coverage. To evaluate its suitability for an application, it is critical to know the accuracy and precision (performance) of the EO SST data. This requires comparisons with co-located and concomitant in situ data. Owing to a relatively large network of in situ platforms there is a good understanding of the performance of EO SST data in the open ocean. However, at the coastline this performance is not well known, impeded by a lack of in situ data. Here, we used in situ SST measurements collected by a group of surfers over a three year period in the coastal waters of the UK and Ireland, to improve our understanding of the performance of EO SST data at the coastline. At two beaches near the city of Plymouth, UK, the in situ SST measurements collected by the surfers were compared with in situ SST collected from two autonomous buoys located ∼7 km and ∼33 km from the coastline, and showed good agreement, with discrepancies consistent with the spatial separation of the sites. The in situ SST measurements collected by the surfers around the coastline, and those collected offshore by the two autonomous buoys, were used to evaluate the performance of operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) EO SST data. Results indicate: (i) a significant reduction in the performance of AVHRR at retrieving SST at the coastline, with root mean square errors in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 °C depending on the temporal difference between match-ups, significantly higher than those at the two offshore stations (0.4 to 0.6 °C); (ii) a systematic negative bias in the AVHRR retrievals of approximately 1 °C at the coastline, not observed at the two offshore stations; and (iii) an increase in the root mean square error at the coastline when the temporal difference between match-ups exceeded three hours. Harnessing new solutions to improve in situ sampling coverage at the coastline, such as tagging surfers with sensors, can improve our understanding of the performance of EO SST data in coastal regions, helping inform users interested in EO SST products for coastal applications. Yet, validating EO SST products using in situ SST data at the coastline is challenged by difficulties reconciling the two measurements, which are provided at different spatial scales in a dynamic and complex environment

    Radiation and breast cancer: a review of current evidence

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    This paper summarizes current knowledge on ionizing radiation-associated breast cancer in the context of established breast cancer risk factors, the radiation dose–response relationship, and modifiers of dose response, taking into account epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Available epidemiological data support a linear dose–response relationship down to doses as low as about 100 mSv. However, the magnitude of risk per unit dose depends strongly on when radiation exposure occurs: exposure before the age of 20 years carries the greatest risk. Other characteristics that may influence the magnitude of dose-specific risk include attained age (that is, age at observation for risk), age at first full-term birth, parity, and possibly a history of benign breast disease, exposure to radiation while pregnant, and genetic factors

    Mitochondrial physiology

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    As the knowledge base and importance of mitochondrial physiology to evolution, health and disease expands, the necessity for harmonizing the terminology concerning mitochondrial respiratory states and rates has become increasingly apparent. The chemiosmotic theory establishes the mechanism of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the protonmotive force provides the framework for developing a consistent theoretical foundation of mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. We follow the latest SI guidelines and those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) on terminology in physical chemistry, extended by considerations of open systems and thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The concept-driven constructive terminology incorporates the meaning of each quantity and aligns concepts and symbols with the nomenclature of classical bioenergetics. We endeavour to provide a balanced view of mitochondrial respiratory control and a critical discussion on reporting data of mitochondrial respiration in terms of metabolic flows and fluxes. Uniform standards for evaluation of respiratory states and rates will ultimately contribute to reproducibility between laboratories and thus support the development of data repositories of mitochondrial respiratory function in species, tissues, and cells. Clarity of concept and consistency of nomenclature facilitate effective transdisciplinary communication, education, and ultimately further discovery

    Identification and reconstruction of low-energy electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector

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    Measurements of electrons from νe\nu_e interactions are crucial for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) neutrino oscillation program, as well as searches for physics beyond the standard model, supernova neutrino detection, and solar neutrino measurements. This article describes the selection and reconstruction of low-energy (Michel) electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector. ProtoDUNE-SP is one of the prototypes for the DUNE far detector, built and operated at CERN as a charged particle test beam experiment. A sample of low-energy electrons produced by the decay of cosmic muons is selected with a purity of 95%. This sample is used to calibrate the low-energy electron energy scale with two techniques. An electron energy calibration based on a cosmic ray muon sample uses calibration constants derived from measured and simulated cosmic ray muon events. Another calibration technique makes use of the theoretically well-understood Michel electron energy spectrum to convert reconstructed charge to electron energy. In addition, the effects of detector response to low-energy electron energy scale and its resolution including readout electronics threshold effects are quantified. Finally, the relation between the theoretical and reconstructed low-energy electron energy spectrum is derived and the energy resolution is characterized. The low-energy electron selection presented here accounts for about 75% of the total electron deposited energy. After the addition of lost energy using a Monte Carlo simulation, the energy resolution improves from about 40% to 25% at 50~MeV. These results are used to validate the expected capabilities of the DUNE far detector to reconstruct low-energy electrons.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figure

    Impact of cross-section uncertainties on supernova neutrino spectral parameter fitting in the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

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    A primary goal of the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is to measure the O(10)\mathcal{O}(10) MeV neutrinos produced by a Galactic core-collapse supernova if one should occur during the lifetime of the experiment. The liquid-argon-based detectors planned for DUNE are expected to be uniquely sensitive to the νe\nu_e component of the supernova flux, enabling a wide variety of physics and astrophysics measurements. A key requirement for a correct interpretation of these measurements is a good understanding of the energy-dependent total cross section σ(Eν)\sigma(E_\nu) for charged-current νe\nu_e absorption on argon. In the context of a simulated extraction of supernova νe\nu_e spectral parameters from a toy analysis, we investigate the impact of σ(Eν)\sigma(E_\nu) modeling uncertainties on DUNE's supernova neutrino physics sensitivity for the first time. We find that the currently large theoretical uncertainties on σ(Eν)\sigma(E_\nu) must be substantially reduced before the νe\nu_e flux parameters can be extracted reliably: in the absence of external constraints, a measurement of the integrated neutrino luminosity with less than 10\% bias with DUNE requires σ(Eν)\sigma(E_\nu) to be known to about 5%. The neutrino spectral shape parameters can be known to better than 10% for a 20% uncertainty on the cross-section scale, although they will be sensitive to uncertainties on the shape of σ(Eν)\sigma(E_\nu). A direct measurement of low-energy νe\nu_e-argon scattering would be invaluable for improving the theoretical precision to the needed level.Comment: 25 pages, 21 figure