120 research outputs found

    Linear Logic for Meaning Assembly

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    Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Meanings are often assumed to combine via function application, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. However, we believe that the functional structure of Lexical-Functional Grammar is best used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult, however, to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function application. In contrast to compositional approaches, we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings, based on reasoning with constraints, which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a `glue' for assembling meanings allows for a coherent treatment of the LFG requirements of completeness and coherence as well as of modification and quantification.Comment: 19 pages, uses lingmacros.sty, fullname.sty, tree-dvips.sty, latexsym.sty, requires the new version of Late

    Recurrent HOXB13 mutations in the Dutch population do not associate with increased breast cancer risk

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    The HOXB13 p.G84E mutation has been firmly established as a prostate cancer susceptibility allele. Although HOXB13 also plays a role in breast tumor progression, the association of HOXB13 p.G84E with breast cancer risk is less evident. Therefore, we comprehensively interrogated the entire HOXB13 coding sequence for mutations in 1,250 non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases and 800 controls. We identified two predicted deleterious missense mutations, p.G84E and p.R217C, that were recurrent among breast cancer cases and further evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in a larger study. Taken together, 4,520 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 3,127 controls were genotyped including the cases and controls of the whole gene screen. The concordance rate for the genotyping assays compared with Sanger sequencing was 100%. The prostate cancer risk allele p.G84E was identified in 18 (0.56%) of 3,187 cases and 16 (0.70%) of 2,300 controls (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.41-1.59, P = 0.54). Additionally, p.R217C was identified in 10 (0.31%) of 3,208 cases and 2 (0.087%) of 2,288 controls (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 0.76-33.57, P = 0.14). These results imply that none of the recurrent HOXB13 mutations in the Dutch population are associated with breast cancer risk, although it may be worthwhile to evaluate p.R217C in a larger study

    Light-driven chloride transport kinetics of halorhodopsin

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    Despite growing interest in light-driven ion pumps for use in optogenetics, current estimates of their transport rates span two orders of magnitude due to challenges in measuring slow transport processes and determining protein concentration and/or orientation in membranes in vitro. In this study, we report, to our knowledge, the first direct quantitative measurement of light-driven Cl transport rates of the anion pump halorohodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR). We used light-interfaced voltage clamp measurements on NpHR-expressing oocytes to obtain a transport rate of 219 (± 98) Cl /protein/s for a photon flux of 630 photons/protein/s. The measurement is consistent with the literature-reported quantum efficiency of ∼30% for NpHR, i.e., 0.3 isomerizations per photon absorbed. To reconcile our measurements with an earlier-reported 20 ms rate-limiting step, or 35 turnovers/protein/s, we conducted, to our knowledge, novel consecutive single-turnover flash experiments that demonstrate that under continuous illumination, NpHR bypasses this step in the photocycle

    Medical Safety and Device Reliability of Active Transcutaneous Middle Ear and Bone Conducting Implants: A Long-Term Multi-Centre Observational Study

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    Active bone-conducting hearing devices (aBCHD; e.g., MEDEL Bonebridge® (BB)) and active middle ear implants (aMEI; e.g., MEDEL Vibrant Soundbridge® (VSB)) use radio frequency transmission to send information from an external microphone and sound processor to an internally implanted transducer. These devices potentially have an advantage over devices with percutaneous links because the skin is closed over the implantable components, which should reduce the risk of skin problems and infection. On the other hand, surgical procedures are more complex, with a greater risk of damage due to surgery. The objectives of this research were to quantify the reliability and long-term survival of MEDEL VSB and BB devices, determine the adverse and serious adverse device-related complications, and consider associated causes. A multi-center observational retrospective and prospective study was conducted at eleven auditory implant centers in the United Kingdom. Data was collected using a surgical questionnaire and audiological reports. Data were obtained from patient notes or from prospective cases that had a minimum follow-up of one year post-implant. Consecutive patient records were reviewed. Datasets from 109 BB and 163 VSB were reviewed. Of these, 205 were retrospective case note reviews, and 67 were prospective cases. The mean follow-up was 4 and 6 years, respectively, for BB and VSB. Kaplan–Meier Survival analyses indicated that the BB survival was 97% and 93.3% at 1 and 5 years, respectively, and the VSB was 92.1% and 87% at the same time points. This is a large cohort study for the field and has indicated that BB and VSB are safe interventions. Care should be taken to monitor magnet strength in the first few months. For the majority of device-related effects, there was no apparent association with etiology. However, an interesting pattern emerged for individuals who exhibited an inflammatory response, e.g., adhesions or device extrusion, and those with a history of chronic suppurative otitis media. This should be considered in future work and is not surprising given that many VSB recipients have a complicated hearing history, often associated with otitis media
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