5,312 research outputs found

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Rhizophagus irregularis on soil microorganisms assessed by metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics

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    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with approximately 80% of plant species and potentially benefit their hosts (e.g. nutrient acquisition) and the soil environment (e.g. soil aggregation). AMF also affect soil microbiota and soil multifunctionality. We manipulated AMF presence (via inoculation of non-sterile soil with Rhizophagus irregularis and using a hyphal compartment design) and used RNA-seq and metaproteomics to assess AMF roles in soil. The results indicated that AMF drove an active soil microbial community expressing transcripts and proteins related to nine metabolic functions, including the metabolism of C and N. We suggest two possible mechanisms: 1) the AMF hyphae produce exudates that select a beneficial community, or, 2) the hyphae compete with other soil microbes for available nutrients and consequently induce the community to mineralize nutrients from soil organic matter. We also identified candidate proteins that are potentially related to soil aggregation, such as Lpt and HSP60. Our results bridge microbial ecology and ecosystem functioning. We show that the AMF hyphosphere contains an active community related to soil respiration and nutrient cycling, thus potentially improving nutrient mineralization from soil organic matter and nutrient supply to the plants

    Impact of the regional climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH

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    A global multicompartment model which is based on a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5) coupled to 2-D soil, vegetation and sea surface mixed layer reservoirs, is used to simulate the atmospheric transports and total environmental fate of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and &gamma;-hexachlorocyclohexane (&gamma;-HCH, lindane). Emissions into the model world reflect the substance's agricultural usage in 1980 and 1990 and same amounts in sequential years are applied. Four scenarios of DDT usage and atmospheric decay and one scenario of &gamma;-HCH are studied over a decade. <P style='line-height: 20px;'> The global environment is predicted to be contaminated by the substances within ca.&nbsp;2a (years). DDT reaches quasi-steady state within 3-4a in the atmosphere and vegetation compartments, ca.&nbsp;6a in the sea surface mixed layer and near to or slightly more than 10a in soil. Lindane reaches quasi-steady state in the atmosphere and vegetation within 2a, in soils within 8&nbsp;years and near to or slightly more than 10a and in the sea surface mixed layer. The substances' differences in environmental behaviour translate into differences in the compartmental distribution and total environmental residence time, &tau;<sub>overall</sub>. &tau;<sub>overall</sub>&asymp;0.8a for &gamma;-HCH's and &asymp;1.0-1.3 a for the various DDT scenarios. Both substances' distributions are predicted to migrate in northerly direction, 5-12&deg; for DDT and 6.7&deg; for lindane between the first and the tenth year in the environment. Cycling in various receptor regions is a complex superposition of influences of regional climate, advection, and the substance's physico-chemical properties. As a result of these processes the model simulations show that remote boreal regions are not necessarily less contaminated than tropical receptor regions. Although the atmosphere accounts for only 1% of the total contaminant burden, transport and transformation in the atmosphere is key for the distribution in other compartments. Hence, besides the physico-chemical properties of pollutants the location of application (entry) affects persistence and accumulation emphasizing the need for georeferenced exposure models

    Rabies screen reveals GPe control of cocaine-triggered plasticity.

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    Identification of neural circuit changes that contribute to behavioural plasticity has routinely been conducted on candidate circuits that were preselected on the basis of previous results. Here we present an unbiased method for identifying experience-triggered circuit-level changes in neuronal ensembles in mice. Using rabies virus monosynaptic tracing, we mapped cocaine-induced global changes in inputs onto neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Cocaine increased rabies-labelled inputs from the globus pallidus externus (GPe), a basal ganglia nucleus not previously known to participate in behavioural plasticity triggered by drugs of abuse. We demonstrated that cocaine increased GPe neuron activity, which accounted for the increase in GPe labelling. Inhibition of GPe activity revealed that it contributes to two forms of cocaine-triggered behavioural plasticity, at least in part by disinhibiting dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. These results suggest that rabies-based unbiased screening of changes in input populations can identify previously unappreciated circuit elements that critically support behavioural adaptations

    Genetic inhibition of neurotransmission reveals role of glutamatergic input to dopamine neurons in high-effort behavior

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    Midbrain dopamine neurons are crucial for many behavioral and cognitive functions. As the major excitatory input, glutamatergic afferents are important for control of the activity and plasticity of dopamine neurons. However, the role of glutamatergic input as a whole onto dopamine neurons remains unclear. Here we developed a mouse line in which glutamatergic inputs onto dopamine neurons are specifically impaired, and utilized this genetic model to directly test the role of glutamatergic inputs in dopamine-related functions. We found that while motor coordination and reward learning were largely unchanged, these animals showed prominent deficits in effort-related behavioral tasks. These results provide genetic evidence that glutamatergic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons underlies incentive motivation, a willingness to exert high levels of effort to obtain reinforcers, and have important implications for understanding the normal function of the midbrain dopamine system.Fil: Hutchison, M. A.. National Institutes of Health; Estados UnidosFil: Gu, X.. National Institutes of Health; Estados UnidosFil: Adrover, Martín Federico. National Institutes of Health; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular "Dr. Héctor N. Torres"; ArgentinaFil: Lee, M. R.. National Institutes of Health; Estados UnidosFil: Hnasko, T. S.. University of California at San Diego; Estados UnidosFil: Alvarez, V. A.. National Institutes of Health; Estados UnidosFil: Lu, W.. National Institutes of Health; Estados Unido

    Input-specific control of reward and aversion in the ventral tegmental area

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    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons have important roles in adaptive and pathological brain functions related to reward and motivation. However, it is unknown whether subpopulations of VTA dopamine neurons participate in distinct circuits that encode different motivational signatures, and whether inputs to the VTA differentially modulate such circuits. Here we show that, because of differences in synaptic connectivity, activation of inputs to the VTA from the laterodorsal tegmentum and the lateral habenula elicit reward and aversion in mice, respectively. Laterodorsal tegmentum neurons preferentially synapse on dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell, whereas lateral habenula neurons synapse primarily on dopamine neurons projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex as well as on GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-containing) neurons in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. These results establish that distinct VTA circuits generate reward and aversion, and thereby provide a new framework for understanding the circuit basis of adaptive and pathological motivated behaviours.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant NIH NS069375)JPB FoundationNational Institute of Mental Health (U.S.

    Types and characteristics of urban and peri-urban green spaces having an impact on human mental health and wellbeing: a systematic review

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    Green spaces have been put forward as contributing to good mental health. In an urban context, space is a scarce resource while urbanisation and climate change are increasingly putting pressure on existing urban green space infrastructures and increasing morbidity caused by mental health disorders. Policy makers, designers, planners and other practitioners face the challenge of designing public open spaces as well as preserving and improving natural resources that are important for maintaining and optimizing human wellbeing. Knowing which types of blue and green spaces, with which characteristics, are most beneficial for mental health and wellbeing is critical. EKLIPSE received a request from the Ministry in charge of the Environment of France (MTES) to review: “Which types of urban and peri‐urban green and blue spaces, and which characteristics of such spaces, have a significant impact on human mental health and wellbeing?”. After a preliminary scoping, a decision was made to perform two systematic reviews (SR) assessing the specific types and characteristics of blue space (SR1) and green space (SR2) with respect to mental health and wellbeing. This report presents the systematic review for green space (SR2)

    Search for the Higgs boson in events with missing transverse energy and b quark jets produced in proton-antiproton collisions at s**(1/2)=1.96 TeV

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    We search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with an electroweak vector boson in events with no identified charged leptons, large imbalance in transverse momentum, and two jets where at least one contains a secondary vertex consistent with the decay of b hadrons. We use ~1 fb-1 integrated luminosity of proton-antiproton collisions at s**(1/2)=1.96 TeV recorded by the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron. We find 268 (16) single (double) b-tagged candidate events, where 248 +/- 43 (14.4 +/- 2.7) are expected from standard model background processes. We place 95% confidence level upper limits on the Higgs boson production cross section for several Higgs boson masses ranging from 110 GeV/c2 to 140 GeV/c2. For a mass of 115 GeV/c2 the observed (expected) limit is 20.4 (14.2) times the standard model prediction.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    Search for a High-Mass Diphoton State and Limits on Randall-Sundrum Gravitons at CDF

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    We have performed a search for new particles which decay to two photons using 1.2/fb of integrated luminosity from p-pbar collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV collected using the CDF II Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We find the diphoton mass spectrum to be in agreement with the standard model expectation, and set limits on the cross section times branching ratio for the Randall-Sundrum graviton, as a function of diphoton mass. We subsequently derive lower limits for the graviton mass of 230 GeV/c2 and 850 GeV/c2, at the 95% confidence level, for coupling parameters (k/M_Pl) of 0.01 and 0.1 respectively.Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    Top quark mass measurement using the template method at CDF

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    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels of ttˉt\bar{t} decays using the template method. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb−1^{-1} of ppˉp\bar{p} collisions at Tevatron with s=1.96\sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector. The measurement is performed by constructing templates of three kinematic variables in the lepton+jets and two kinematic variables in the dilepton channel. The variables are two reconstructed top quark masses from different jets-to-quarks combinations and the invariant mass of two jets from the WW decay in the lepton+jets channel, and a reconstructed top quark mass and mT2m_{T2}, a variable related to the transverse mass in events with two missing particles, in the dilepton channel. The simultaneous fit of the templates from signal and background events in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels to the data yields a measured top quark mass of Mtop=172.1±1.1(stat)±0.9(syst).M_{top} = 172.1 \pm 1.1(stat) \pm 0.9(syst).Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev.
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