4,015 research outputs found

    Study on Palmaris Longus Muscle Tendon Agenesis Among First Year Filipino Medical Students

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    Introduction: In the recent years palmaris longus muscle tendon (PLMT) has become an extensively and intensively studied muscle all over the world. The main reason for this is the importance of PLMT which was recognized with development of plastic and reconstructive surgery. The possibilities of PLMT use has become bigger and bigger each day Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus muscle tendon among first year Filipino medical students at OLFU. Methods: This study was conducted at the Our Lady of Fatima University Medical Centre, Valenzuela City, Philippines. A semi-structured proforma was used to record the relevant data for the study. The Thompson’s test was used for assessing palmaris longus muscle tendon. After taking consent total of 503 first year Filipino medical students were involved. Results: Out of total 503 subjects, 170 (33.80%) were males and 333 (66.20%) were females. Percentage of frequency of agenesis of palmaris longus muscle tendon in both genders was 17.05%. There was no significant gender and laterality difference in the incidence of the agenesis of palmaris longus muscle tendon. That means there are equal chances of palmaris longus muscle tendon agenesis in both gender and the laterality. Conclusions: There was no significant gender and laterality difference in the incidence of the agenesis of PLMT. This means that there are equal chances of PLMT agenesis in both gender and the laterality. Journal of Gandaki Medical College Vol. 10, No. 1, 2017, Page: 17-2

    Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: A retrospective Study at a tertiary care hospital in Palpa, Nepal

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    Background: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a significant global health problem. Related studies to it in different places and diff erent durations are indicated by many previous research findings. Findings of this study could be beneficial for its preventive and control strategies. Methodology: Retrospective analysis of clinical specimens submitted to Central laboratory of Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital (LMCTH) for extrapulmonary tuberculosis was performed. Total 261 samples submitted from April 2011 to February 2013 were included for analysis in this study. Results: Total 20.7% (54/261) prevalence of EPTB was reported. Based on sites involved; lymph node 87.03%, pleural effusion7.40%, peritoneal5.55% were found. Genderwise equal prevalence was seen among male and females. Age-wise prevalence among patients between 21-40 years was reported. Conclusion: Our finding indicates great necessity for further large scale study on prevalence of EPTB in this location for its prevention and control

    Geostatistical based soil fertility mapping of Horticultural Research Station, Rajikot, Jumla, Nepal

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    Geostatistical soil mapping is important for determining spatial distribution of soil parameters. This study was conducted to assess soil spatial distribution of the Horticultural Research Station, Rajikot, Jumla, Nepal. The total 27 samples were collected randomly at a depth of 0-20 cm by using soil sampling auger. A GPS device was used for determination of geographical position of soil sampling points. The collected samples were analyzed following standard analytical methods in the laboratory of National Soil Science Research Centre, Khumaltar. The Arc-GIS 10.1 software was used for the mapping spatial distribution of various soil parameters. The observed data revealed the structure was sub-angular blocky and granular, whereas colour were dark brown to dark grayish brown and dark yellowish brown. The sand, silt and clay content were ranged 24.40-72.10%, 19.40-63.10% and 6.20-14.50%, respectively and categorized loam, sandy loam and silt loam in texture. The soil pH was slightly acidic to moderately alkaline (5.01-8.06), and very low available sulphur (0.59-2.41 mg/kg) and very low to low available boron (0.04-0.87 mg/kg).  Moreover, very low to medium available manganese (2.18-13.46 mg/kg), very low to very high available iron (4.50-138.58 mg/kg), and low to medium available magnesium (7.20-177.60.53 mg/kg) and zinc (0.26-1.66 mg/kg). Similarly, medium total nitrogen (0.09-0.22%), medium to high organic matter (1.71-6.26%) and available calcium (1200-3144 mg/kg), medium to very high available phosphorus (3.71-82.4 mg/kg) and potassium (59.37-173.05 mg/kg). Correspondingly, high to very high available copper (0.78-4.20 mg/kg). The determined soil test data can be used for sustainable soil management as well as developing future research strategy in the farm

    Soil analysis gis-based fertility assessment and mapping of agricultural research station, Pakhribas, Dhankuta, Nepal

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    Soil fertility evaluation has been considered as a most effective tool for sustainable planning of a particular region. This study was conducted to determine the soil fertility status of the Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas, Dhankuta, Nepal. The total 60 soil samples were collected randomly at a depth of 0-20 cm by using the soil sampling auger. For identification of soil sampling points A GPS device was used. The collected samples were analyzed for their texture, pH, OM, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn status following standard methods in the laboratory of Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. The Arc-GIS 10.1 software was used for soil fertility maps preparation. The observed data revealed that soil was dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) in colour, and single grained, granular and sub-angular blocky in structure. The sand, silt and clay content were 56.61±0.97%, 27.62±0.56% and 15.77±0.58%, respectively and categorized as loam, sandy loam and sandy clay loam in texture. The soil was very acidic in pH (4.66±0.07) and very low in available sulphur (0.53±0.11mg/kg), available boron (0.24±0.07mg/kg). The organic matter (1.34±0.07%), total nitrogen (0.09±0.003mg/kg), available calcium (605.70±31.40mg/kg), available magnesium (55.96±4.67mg/kg) and available zinc (0.54±0.22mg/kg) were low in status. Similarly, available potassium (115.98±9.19 mg/kg) and available copper (1.13±0.09 mg/kg) were medium in status. Furthermore, available manganese (36.31±2.82mg/kg) was high, whereas available phosphorus (105.07±9.89 mg/kg) and available iron (55.80±8.89 mg/kg) were very high in status. The soil fertility management practice should be adopted based on the determined status in the field for the sustainable production of crops. The future research strategy should be built based on the soil fertility status of the research farm

    Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad

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    Conventionally bred (CHT) and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have changed weed management practices and made an important contribution to the global production of some commodity crops. However, a concern is that farm management practices associated with the cultivation of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland biodiversity and accelerate the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Diversification in crop systems and weed management practices can enhance farmland biodiversity, and reduce the risk of weeds evolving herbicide resistance. Therefore, HT crops are most effective and sustainable as a component of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. IWM advocates the use of multiple effective strategies or tactics to manage weed populations in a manner that is economically and environmentally sound. In practice, however, the potential benefits of IWM with HT crops are seldom realized because a wide range of technical and socio-economic factors hamper the transition to IWM. Here, we discuss the major factors that limit the integration of HT crops and their associated farm management practices in IWM systems. Based on the experience gained in countries where CHT or GMHT crops are widely grown and the increased familiarity with their management, we propose five actions to facilitate the integration of HT crops in IWM systems within the European Union

    Technical Efficiency of Hybrid Maize Production in Eastern Terai of Nepal: a Stochastic Frontier Approach

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    Maize is the second most important crop after rice in terms of area and production in Nepal. This article analyzes the technical efficiency and its determinants of hybrid maize production in eastern Nepal. Using a randomly selected data from 98 farmers (41 from Morang and 57 from Sunsari) in eastern Nepal, the study employed a stochastic frontier production model to find the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, determinants of efficiency and technical efficiency of hybrid maize farmers. The results showed that maize production responds positively to increase in amount of urea, DAP and the area planted, where as it is negative to seed quantity. The study indicate that farmers are not technically efficient with a mean technical efficiency 79 %. Socioeconomic variable age had a negative and significant while the household size had a positive and significant related to maize output. The younger farmers were observed more technically efficient than older farmers. Larger the members in the household higher the maize production. It is recommended that farmers should increase their fertilizer dose and farm size while they should decrease their seed rate for efficient production

    Bacterial Thymidine Kinase as a Non-Invasive Imaging Reporter for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Live Animals

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    Bacteria can be selectively imaged in experimentally-infected animals using exogenously administered 1-(2'deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[(125)I]-iodouracil ([(125)I]-FIAU), a nucleoside analog substrate for bacterial thymidine kinase (TK). Our goal was to use this reporter and develop non-invasive methods to detect and localize Mycobacterium tuberculosis.We engineered a M. tuberculosis strain with chromosomally integrated bacterial TK under the control of hsp60 -- a strong constitutive mycobacterial promoter. [(125)I]FIAU uptake, antimicrobial susceptibilities and in vivo growth characteristics were evaluated for this strain. Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), M. tuberculosis P(hsp60) TK strain was evaluated in experimentally-infected BALB/c and C3HeB/FeJ mice using the thigh inoculation or low-dose aerosol infection models. M. tuberculosis P(hsp60) TK strain actively accumulated [(125)I]FIAU in vitro. Growth characteristics of the TK strain and susceptibility to common anti-tuberculous drugs were similar to the wild-type parent strain. M. tuberculosis P(hsp60) TK strain was stable in vivo and SPECT imaging could detect and localize this strain in both animal models tested.We have developed a novel tool for non-invasive assessment of M. tuberculosis in live experimentally-infected animals. This tool will allow real-time pathogenesis studies in animal models of TB and has the potential to simplify preclinical studies and accelerate TB research

    Correlation coefficient and path analysis of yield and yield attributing characters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under reproductive drought stress in the Terai region of Nepal

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    An experimental trial of nine rice genotypes was conducted in the Agronomy field of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) Paklihawa Campus under a randomized block design layout with three replications from July to November of 2022. The aim was to study genetic variability and analyze the character association of yield and yield-attributing components in rice genotypes and their direct and indirect effect on grain yield under reproductive drought stress conditions. Observations on days to flowering (50%), plant height, panicle length, panicle weight, number of grains/panicles, effective panicle/m², grain yield, and 1000 kernel weight were recorded. Grain yield showed a highly positive significant correlation with effective panicle/m² (0.713**), followed by plant height (0.347) and panicle length (0.289). The path coefficient analysis of different traits revealed the highest positive direct effect of the effective panicle per m² (0.748963), followed by panicle length (0.24145) and plant height (0.227505). The highest negative direct effect was shown by the number of grains per panicle (-0.31218). The experimental results revealed that the selection of trait-effective panicle per square meter would be most beneficial for the improvement of yield in rice genotypes facilitating selection and plant breeding programs

    How the structure of the large subunit controls function in an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase

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    Salmonella enterica is an opportunistic pathogen that produces a [NiFe]-hydrogenase under aerobic conditions. In the present study, genetic engineering approaches were used to facilitate isolation of this enzyme, termed Hyd-5. The crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 3.2 Å and the hydro-genase was observed to comprise associated large and small subunits. The structure indicated that His(229) from the large subunit was close to the proximal [4Fe–3S] cluster in the small subunit. In addition, His(229) was observed to lie close to a buried glutamic acid (Glu(73)), which is conserved in oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases. His(229) and Glu(73) of the Hyd-5 large subunit were found to be important in both hydrogen oxidation activity and the oxygen-tolerance mechanism. Substitution of His(229) or Glu(73) with alanine led to a loss in the ability of Hyd-5 to oxidize hydrogen in air. Furthermore, the H229A variant was found to have lost the overpotential requirement for activity that is always observed with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases. It is possible that His(229) has a role in stabilizing the super-oxidized form of the proximal cluster in the presence of oxygen, and it is proposed that Glu(73)could play a supporting role in fine-tuning the chemistry of His(229) to enable this function