6,320 research outputs found

    van der Waals energy under strong atom-field coupling in doped carbon nanotubes

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    Using a unified macroscopic QED formalism, we derive an integral equation for the van der Waals energy of a two-level atomic system near a carbon nanotube. The equation is valid for both strong and weak atom-vacuum-field coupling. By solving it numerically, we demonstrate the inapplicability of weak-coupling-based van der Waals interaction models in a close vicinity of the nanotube surface.Comment: 9 pages, 1 figur

    Theoretical Raman fingerprints of α\alpha-, β\beta-, and γ\gamma-graphyne

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    The novel graphene allotropes α\alpha-, β\beta-, and γ\gamma-graphyne derive from graphene by insertion of acetylenic groups. The three graphynes are the only members of the graphyne family with the same hexagonal symmetry as graphene itself, which has as a consequence similarity in their electronic and vibrational properties. Here, we study the electronic band structure, phonon dispersion, and Raman spectra of these graphynes within an \textit{ab-initio}-based non-orthogonal tight-binding model. In particular, the predicted Raman spectra exhibit a few intense resonant Raman lines, which can be used for identification of the three graphynes by their Raman spectra for future applications in nanoelectronics

    Comparative study of the two-phonon Raman bands of silicene and graphene

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    We present a computational study of the two-phonon Raman spectra of silicene and graphene within a density-functional non-orthogonal tight-binding model. Due to the presence of linear bands close to the Fermi energy in the electronic structure of both structures, the Raman scattering by phonons is resonant. We find that the Raman spectra exhibit a crossover behavior for laser excitation close to the \pi-plasmon energy. This phenomenon is explained by the disappearance of certain paths for resonant Raman scattering and the appearance of other paths beyond this energy. Besides that, the electronic joint density of states is divergent at this energy, which is reflected on the behavior of the Raman bands of the two structures in a qualitatively different way. Additionally, a number of Raman bands, originating from divergent phonon density of states at the M point and at points, inside the Brillouin zone, is also predicted. The calculated spectra for graphene are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The obtained Raman bands can be used for structural characterization of silicene and graphene samples by Raman spectroscopy

    Grain boundaries in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

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    The scientific literature on grain boundaries (GBs) in graphene was reviewed. The review focuses mainly on the experimental findings on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under a very wide range of experimental conditions (temperature, pressure hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio, gas flow velocity and substrates). Differences were found in the GBs depending on the origin of graphene: in micro-mechanically cleaved graphene (produced using graphite originating from high-temperature, high-pressure synthesis), rows of non-hexagonal rings separating two perfect graphene crystallites are found more frequently, while in graphene produced by CVD—despite the very wide range of growth conditions used in different laboratories—GBs with more pronounced disorder are more frequent. In connection with the observed disorder, the stability of two-dimensional amorphous carbon is discussed and the growth conditions that may impact on the structure of the GBs are reviewed. The most frequently used methods for the atomic scale characterization of the GB structures, their possibilities and limitations and the alterations of the GBs in CVD graphene during the investigation (e.g. under e-beam irradiation) are discussed. The effects of GB disorder on electric and thermal transport are reviewed and the relatively scarce data available on the chemical properties of the GBs are summarized. GBs are complex enough nanoobjects so that it may be unlikely that two experimentally produced GBs of several microns in length could be completely identical in all of their atomic scale details. Despite this, certain generalized conclusions may be formulated, which may be helpful for experimentalists in interpreting the results and in planning new experiments, leading to a more systematic picture of GBs in CVD graphene

    Near-field Electrodynamics of Atomically Doped Carbon Nanotubes

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    We develop a quantum theory of near-field electrodynamical properties of carbon nanotubes and investigate spontaneous decay dynamics of excited states and van der Waals attraction of the ground state of an atomic system close to a single-wall nanotube surface. Atomic spontaneous decay exhibits vacuum-field Rabi oscillations -- a principal signature of strong atom-vacuum-field coupling. The strongly coupled atomic state is nothing but a 'quasi-1D cavity polariton'. Its stability is mainly determined by the atom-nanotube van der Waals interaction. Our calculations of the ground-state atom van der Waals energy performed within a universal quantum mechanical approach valid for both weak and strong atom-field coupling demonstrate the inapplicability of conventional weak-coupling-based van der Waals interaction models in a close vicinity of the nanotube surface.Comment: Book Chapter. 50 pages, 11 figures. To be published in "Nanotubes: New Research", edited by F.Columbus (Nova Science, New York, 2005

    Electronic structure of polychiral carbon nanotubes

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    Most of the works devoted so far to the electronic band structure of multiwall nanotubes have been restricted to the case where the individual layers have the same helicity. By comparison, much less is known on the electronic properties of multiwall nanotubes that mix different helicities. These are interesting systems, however, since they can be composed of both metallic and semiconducting layers. For the present work, tight-binding calculations were undertaken for polychiral two-layer nanotubes such as (9,6)@(15,10), (6,6)@(18,2), and others. The recursion technique was used to investigate how the densities of states of the individual layers are affected by the intertube coupling. Constant-current STM images were also calculated for these systems. The result obtained is that the image of a two-wall nanotube is pretty much the same as the one of the isolated external layer. It is only in the case of monochiral, commensurate structures like (5,5)@(10,10) that interlayer effects can be seen on the STM topography.Comment: 12 pages plus 6 figures included in the postscript fil

    Long-range interactions between substitutional nitrogen dopants in graphene: electronic properties calculations

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    Being a true two-dimensional crystal, graphene has special properties. In particular, a point-like defect in graphene may have effects in the long range. This peculiarity questions the validity of using a supercell geometry in an attempt to explore the properties of an isolated defect. Still, this approach is often used in ab-initio electronic structure calculations, for instance. How does this approach converge with the size of the supercell is generally not tackled for the obvious reason of keeping the computational load to an affordable level. The present paper addresses the problem of substitutional nitrogen doping of graphene. DFT calculations have been performed for 9x9 and 10x10 supercells. Although these calculations correspond to N concentrations that differ by about 10%, the local densities of states on and around the defects are found to depend significantly on the supercell size. Fitting the DFT results by a tight-binding Hamiltonian makes it possible to explore the effects of a random distribution of the substitutional N atoms, in the case of finite concentrations, and to approach the case of an isolated impurity when the concentration vanishes. The tight-binding Hamiltonian is used to calculate the STM image of graphene around an isolated N atom. STM images are also calculated for graphene doped with 0.5 % concentration of nitrogen. The results are discussed in the light of recent experimental data and the conclusions of the calculations are extended to other point defects in graphene

    Hofstadter butterflies of bilayer graphene

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    We calculate the electronic spectrum of bilayer graphene in perpendicular magnetic fields nonperturbatively. To accommodate arbitrary displacements between the two layers, we apply a periodic gauge based on singular flux vortices of phase 2π2\pi. The resulting Hofstadter-like butterfly plots show a reduced symmetry, depending on the relative position of the two layers against each other. The split of the zero-energy relativistic Landau level differs by one order of magnitude between Bernal and non-Bernal stacking.Comment: updated to refereed and edited versio
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