1,985 research outputs found

    Impartiality, Close Friendships and the Confucian Tradition

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    This article explores the relationship between friendship and morality. Two ideas have been influential in the history of moral philosophy: the impartial standpoint and close friendship. These two perspectives on thought and action can conflict, however, and such a case is presented here. In an attempt to resolve these tensions, and understand the assumption that gives rise to it, I explore an alternative conception of moral conduct and friendship suggested by early Confucian thought. Within this account, moral conduct is that which aims at harmony, understood as the appropriate blending of different elements. This suggests a conception of friendship that realizes harmony through a focus on shared activities, and the quality of interaction achieved between people as they participate in shared social events. This account offers a novel way of conceptualizing friendship, which also avoids the tension between the impartial standpoint and close friendship

    Adaptive Optics Simulations for Siding Spring

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    Using an observational derived model optical turbulence profile (model-OTP) we have investigated the performance of Adaptive Optics (AO) at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO), Australia. The simulations cover the performance for AO techniques of single conjugate adaptive optics (SCAO), multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) and ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO). The simulation results presented in this paper predict the performance of these AO techniques as applied to the Australian National University (ANU) 2.3 m and Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) 3.9 m telescopes for astronomical wavelength bands J, H and K. The results indicate that AO performance is best for the longer wavelengths (K-band) and in the best seeing conditions (sub 1-arcsecond). The most promising results are found for GLAO simulations (field of view of 180 arcsecs), with the field RMS for encircled energy 50% diameter (EE50d) being uniform and minimally affected by the free-atmosphere turbulence. The GLAO performance is reasonably good over the wavelength bands of J, H and K. The GLAO field mean of EE50d is between 200 mas to 800 mas, which is a noticeable improvement compared to the nominal astronomical seeing (870 to 1700 mas).Comment: 15 pages; accepted for publication in PAS

    The Challenge of Teaching Chinese Philosophy: Some Thoughts on Method

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    In this essay I offer an alternative perspective on how to organize class material for courses in Chinese philosophy for predominately American students. Instead of selecting topics taken from common themes in Western discourses, I suggest a variety of organizational strategies based on themes from the Chinese texts themselves, such as tradition, ritual, family, and guanxi (關係), which are rooted in the Chinese tradition but flexible enough to organize a broad range of philosophical material

    The Wrong of Rudeness

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    Amy Olberding, The Wrong of Rudeness: Learning Modern Civility from Ancient Chinese Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2019, 183pp., $29.95 (hbk), ISBN 9780190880965. Reviewed byAndrew Lambert, City University of New York, College of Staten Islan

    Accuracy assessment of Tri-plane B-mode ultrasound for non-invasive 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints

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    BACKGROUND Currently the clinical standard for measuring the motion of the bones in knee joints with sufficient precision involves implanting tantalum beads into the bones. These beads appear as high intensity features in radiographs and can be used for precise kinematic measurements. This procedure imposes a strong coupling between accuracy and invasiveness. In this paper, a tri-plane B-mode ultrasound (US) based non-invasive approach is proposed for use in kinematic analysis of knee joints in 3D space. METHODS The 3D analysis is performed using image processing procedures on the 2D US slices. The novelty of the proposed procedure and its applicability to the unconstrained 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints is outlined. An error analysis for establishing the method's feasibility is included for different artificial compositions of a knee joint phantom. Some in-vivo and in-vitro scans are presented to demonstrate that US scans reveal enough anatomical details, which further supports the experimental setup used using knee bone phantoms. RESULTS The error between the displacements measured by the registration of the US image slices and the true displacements of the respective slices measured using the precision mechanical stages on the experimental apparatus is evaluated for translation and rotation in two simulated environments. The mean and standard deviation of errors are shown in tabular form. This method provides an average measurement precision of less than 0.1 mm and 0.1 degrees, respectively. CONCLUSION In this paper, we have presented a novel non-invasive approach to measuring the motion of the bones in a knee using tri-plane B-mode ultrasound and image registration. In our study, the image registration method determines the position of bony landmarks relative to a B-mode ultrasound sensor array with sub-pixel accuracy. The advantages of our proposed system over previous techniques are that it is non-invasive, does not require the use of ionizing radiation and can be used conveniently if miniaturized.This work has been supported by School of Engineering & IT, UNSW Canberra, under Research Publication Fellowship

    Cost effectiveness analysis of different approaches of screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia

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    Objectives To assess the cost effectiveness of strategies to screen for and treat familial hypercholesterolaemia. Design Cost effectiveness analysis. A care pathway for each patient was delineated and the associated probabilities, benefits, and costs were calculated. Participants Simulated population aged 16­54 years in England and Wales. Interventions Identification and treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia by universal screening, opportunistic screening in primary care, screening of people admitted to hospital with premature myocardial infarction, or tracing family members of affected patients. Main outcome measure Cost effectiveness calculated as cost per life year gained (extension of life expectancy resulting from intervention) including estimated costs of screening and treatment. Results Tracing of family members was the most cost effective strategy (£3097 (&5066, $4479) per life year gained) as 2.6 individuals need to be screened to identify one case at a cost of £133 per case detected. If the genetic mutation was known within the family then the cost per life year gained (£4914) was only slightly increased by genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Universal population screening was least cost effective (£13 029 per life year gained) as 1365 individuals need to be screened at a cost of £9754 per case detected. For each strategy it was more cost effective to screen younger people and women. Targeted strategies were more expensive per person screened, but the cost per case detected was lower. Population screening of 16 year olds only was as cost effective as family tracing (£2777 with a clinical confirmation). Conclusions Screening family members of people with familial hypercholesterolaemia is the most cost effective option for detecting cases across the whole population

    Na\u3csup\u3e+\u3c/sup\u3e/K\u3csup\u3e+\u3c/sup\u3e-ATPase α1 mRNA Expression In the Gill and Rectal Gland of the Atlantic Stingray, \u3ci\u3eDasyatis sabina\u3c/i\u3e, Following Acclimation to Increased Salinity Physiology

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    Background: The salt-secreting rectal gland plays a major role in elasmobranch osmoregulation, facilitating ion balance in hyperosmotic environments in a manner analogous to the teleost gill. Several studies have examined the central role of the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase in osmoregulatory tissues of euryhaline elasmobranch species, including regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity and abundance in response to salinity acclimation. However, while the transcriptional regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase in the teleost gill has been well documented the potential for mRNA regulation to facilitate rectal gland plasticity during salinity acclimation in elasmobranchs has not been examined. Therefore, in this study we acclimated Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur) from 11 to 34 ppt salinity over 3 days, and examined changes in plasma components as well as gill and rectal gland Na+/K+-ATPase α1 (atp1a1) mRNA expression. Results: Acclimation to increased salinity did not affect hematocrit but resulted in significant increases in plasma osmolality, chloride and urea. Rectal gland atp1a1 mRNA expression was higher in 34 ppt-acclimated D. sabina vs. controls. There was no significant change in gill atp1a1 mRNA expression, however mRNA expression of this gene in the gill and rectal gland were negatively correlated. Conclusions: This study demonstrates regulation of atp1a1 in the elasmobranch salt-secreting gland in response to salinity acclimation and a negative relationship between rectal gland and gill atp1a1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that the gill and rectal gland play opposing roles in ion balance with the gill potentially facilitating ion uptake in hypoosmotic environments. Future studies should further examine this possibility as well as potential differences in the regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase gene expression between euryhaline and stenohaline elasmobranch species
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