54 research outputs found

    Corrigendum: hypoxic induced decrease in oxygen consumption in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Is Associated with minor increases in Mantle Octopine but no changes in markers of protein turnover

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    Corrige o artigo http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/10858 [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00344.].info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Estimates of metabolic rate and major constituents of metabolic demand in fishes under field conditions: Methods, proxies, and new perspectives

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    Metabolic costs are central to individual energy budgets, making estimates of metabolic rate vital to understanding how an organism interacts with its environment as well as the role of species in their ecosystem. Despite the ecological and commercial importance of fishes, there are currently no widely adopted means of measuring field metabolic rate in fishes. The lack of recognized methods is in part due to the logistical difficulties of measuring metabolic rates in free swimming fishes. However, further development and refinement of techniques applicable for field-based studies on free swimming animals would greatly enhance the capacity to study fish under environmentally relevant conditions. In an effort to foster discussion in this area, from field ecologists to biochemists alike, we review aspects of energy metabolism and give details on approaches that have been used to estimate energetic parameters in fishes. In some cases, the techniques have been applied to field conditions; while in others, the methods have been primarily used on laboratory held fishes but should be applicable, with validation, to fishes in their natural environment. Limitations, experimental considerations and caveats of these measurements and the study of metabolism in wild fishes in general are also discussed. Potential novel approaches to FMR estimates are also presented for consideration. The innovation of methods for measuring field metabolic rate in free-ranging wild fish would revolutionize the study of physiological ecology

    Differences in mitochondrial efficiency explain individual variation in growth performance

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    The physiological causes of intraspecific differences in fitness components such as growth rate are currently a source of debate. It has been suggested that differences in energy metabolism may drive variation in growth, but it remains unclear whether covariation between growth rates and energy metabolism is: (i) a result of certain individuals acquiring and consequently allocating more resources to growth, and/or is (ii) determined by variation in the efficiency with which those resources are transformed into growth. Studies of individually housed animals under standardized nutritional conditions can help shed light on this debate. Here we quantify individual variation in metabolic efficiency in terms of the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by liver and muscle mitochondria and examine its effects, both on the rate of protein synthesis within these tissues and on the rate of whole-body growth of individually fed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) receiving either a high or low food ration. As expected, fish on the high ration on average gained more in body mass and protein content than those maintained on the low ration. Yet, growth performance varied more than 10-fold among individuals on the same ration, resulting in some fish on low rations growing faster than others on the high ration. This variation in growth for a given ration was related to individual differences in mitochondrial properties: a high whole-body growth performance was associated with high mitochondrial efficiency of ATP production in the liver. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, that among-individual variation in the efficiency with which substrates are converted into ATP can help explain marked variation in growth performance, independent of food intake. This study highlights the existence of inter-individual differences in mitochondrial efficiency and its potential importance in explaining intraspecific variation in whole-animal performance

    Differences in mitochondrial efficiency explain individual variation in growth performance

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    The physiological causes of intraspecific differences in fitness components such as growth rate are currently a source of debate. It has been suggested that differences in energy metabolism may drive variation in growth, but it remains unclear whether covariation between growth rates and energy metabolism is: (i) a result of certain individuals acquiring and consequently allocating more resources to growth, and/or is (ii) determined by variation in the efficiency with which those resources are transformed into growth. Studies of individually housed animals under standardized nutritional conditions can help shed light on this debate. Here we quantify individual variation in metabolic efficiency in terms of the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by liver and muscle mitochondria and examine its effects, both on the rate of protein synthesis within these tissues and on the rate of whole-body growth of individually fed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) receiving either a high or low food ration. As expected, fish on the high ration on average gained more in body mass and protein content than those maintained on the low ration. Yet, growth performance varied more than 10-fold among individuals on the same ration, resulting in some fish on low rations growing faster than others on the high ration. This variation in growth for a given ration was related to individual differences in mitochondrial properties: a high whole-body growth performance was associated with high mitochondrial efficiency of ATP production in the liver. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, that among-individual variation in the efficiency with which substrates are converted into ATP can help explain marked variation in growth performance, independent of food intake. This study highlights the existence of inter-individual differences in mitochondrial efficiency and its potential importance in explaining intraspecific variation in whole-animal performance

    Metabolic rate and rates of protein turnover in food-deprived cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758)

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    To determine the metabolic response to food deprivation, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) juveniles were either fed, fasted (3 to 5 days food deprivation), or starved (12 days food deprivation). Fasting resulted in a decrease in triglyceride levels in the digestive gland, and after 12 days, these lipid reserves were essentially depleted. Oxygen consumption was decreased to 53% and NH4 excretion to 36% of the fed group following 3-5 days of food deprivation. Oxygen consumption remained low in the starved group, but NH4 excretion returned to the level recorded for fed animals during starvation. The fractional rate of protein synthesis of fasting animals decreased to 25% in both mantle and gill compared with fed animals and remained low in the mantle with the onset of starvation. In gill, however, protein synthesis rate increased to a level that was 45% of the fed group during starvation. In mantle, starvation led to an increase in cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like enzyme activity and a 2.3-fold increase in polyubiquitin mRNA that suggested an increase in ubiquitin-proteasome activity. In gill, there was a transient increase in the polyubiquitin transcript levels in the transition from fed through fasted to the starved state and cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like activity was lower in starved compared with fed animals. The response in gill appears more complex, as they better maintain rates of protein synthesis and show no evidence of enhanced protein breakdown through recognized catabolic processes

    Enzymatic capacities of metabolic fuel use in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and responses to food deprivation: insight into the metabolic organization and starvation survival strategy of cephalopods

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    Food limitation is a common challenge for animals. Cephalopods are sensitive to starvation because of high metabolic rates and growth rates related to their "live fast, die young" life history. We investigated how enzymatic capacities of key metabolic pathways are modulated during starvation in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to gain insight into the metabolic organization of cephalopods and their strategies for coping with food limitation. In particular, lipids have traditionally been considered unimportant fuels in cephalopods, yet, puzzlingly, many species (including cuttlefish) mobilize the lipid stores in their digestive gland during starvation. Using a comprehensive multi-tissue assay of enzymatic capacities for energy metabolism, we show that, during long-term starvation (12 days), glycolytic capacity for glucose use is decreased in cuttlefish tissues, while capacities for use of lipid-based fuels (fatty acids and ketone bodies) and amino acid fuels are retained or increased. Specifically, the capacity to use the ketone body acetoacetate as fuel is widespread across tissues and gill has a previously unrecognized capacity for fatty acid catabolism, albeit at low rates. The capacity for de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis), important for glucose homeostasis, likely is restricted to the digestive gland, contrary to previous reports of widespread gluconeogenesis among cephalopod tissues. Short-term starvation (3-5 days) had few effects on enzymatic capacities. Similar to vertebrates, lipid-based fuels, putatively mobilized from fat stores in the digestive gland, appear to be important energy sources for cephalopods, especially during starvation when glycolytic capacity is decreased perhaps to conserve available glucose

    Scientists' warning on climate change and insects

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    Climate warming is considered to be among the most serious of anthropogenic stresses to the environment, because it not only has direct effects on biodiversity, but it also exacerbates the harmful effects of other human-mediated threats. The associated consequences are potentially severe, particularly in terms of threats to species preservation, as well as in the preservation of an array of ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. Among the most affected groups of animals are insects—central components of many ecosystems—for which climate change has pervasive effects from individuals to communities. In this contribution to the scientists' warning series, we summarize the effect of the gradual global surface temperature increase on insects, in terms of physiology, behavior, phenology, distribution, and species interactions, as well as the effect of increased frequency and duration of extreme events such as hot and cold spells, fires, droughts, and floods on these parameters. We warn that, if no action is taken to better understand and reduce the action of climate change on insects, we will drastically reduce our ability to build a sustainable future based on healthy, functional ecosystems. We discuss perspectives on relevant ways to conserve insects in the face of climate change, and we offer several key recommendations on management approaches that can be adopted, on policies that should be pursued, and on the involvement of the general public in the protection effort

    The effect of temperature on protein metabolism and antioxidant activity in the spotted wolffish, Anarhichas minor

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    Temperature has profound effects on the rate of physiological processes in ectothermic vertebrates. Protein metabolism is no exception and the effects of temperature have mostly been studied with respect to protein synthesis. Temperature generally has a parabolic effect on protein synthesis with a maximum rate being observed at optimal growth temperature. The effect of temperature on protein degradation is poorly understood. The 20S proteasome is mainly responsible for the degradation of short-lived and oxidatively modified proteins. It has been recently identified as a potentially good proxy for protein degradation in fish. -- In the first experiment, the relationships between the rate of protein synthesis, 20S proteasome activity, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant capacity in white muscle of juvenile spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor) acclimated at three temperatures (4, 8 and 12 °C) were examined. The rate of protein synthesis was lower at 4 °C than at 8 °C while it was intermediate at 12 °C. Despite the decrease in protein synthesis at low temperature, 20S proteasome activity was maintained at a high level, reaching 130% of that of fish acclimated at 8 °C when measured at a common temperature. The oxidative stress markers TBARS and carbonyl-protein content did not change amongst temperature groups, but the concentration of reduced glutathione was higher in cold acclimated fish suggesting a higher antioxidant capacity in this group. The data suggest that lower growth rate at cold temperatures results from both high 20S proteasome activity and a reduced rate of protein synthesis. -- In a second experiment, the relationship between specific growth rate (SGR) and 20S proteasome activity in heart ventricle, liver and white muscle was assessed in fish acclimated at 4 and 12 °C in order to determine if protein degradation via the proteasome pathway could impose a limitation on somatic growth in fish of weight ranging from 150 to 1500 g in mass. The data show that white muscle 20S proteasome activity is negatively correlated to SGR (partial Pearson's r = -0.609) in white muscle at the cold acclimation temperature (4 °C) but not at 12 °C or heart and liver at either temperature. Contrary to the first experiment, the white muscle 20S proteasome activity was not higher in the group acclimated at 4 °C. This observation suggests that the effect of temperature on protein degradation may change during fish ontogeny. Nevertheless, the results from the first two experiments suggest that interindividual variation of 20S proteasome activity has an impact on SGR. -- The third part of this study documents the effects of acclimation to high and low temperature (4 and 12 °C) on mitochondrial and antioxidant capacities in white muscle, heart ventricle and liver of spotted wolffish. Following an acclimation period of 51 days, mitochondrial capacity was measured as the activities of the Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport system (CPLXI) and citrate synthase (CS). Glutathione disulfide reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as glutathione concentration were also measured to estimate antioxidant capacities. Following acclimation to 4 °C, mitochondrial capacities were compensated in liver and heart ventricle but not in white muscle. GR activity was increased at cold temperature in the three tissues while CAT activity was increased at the higher acclimation temperature in heart and white muscle. The relationships between mitochondrial and antioxidant enzyme activities, when observed, were always positive. In white muscle only, the activity of 20S proteasome was positively related to the complex I (r² = 0.450) and to CS (r² = 0.411) activities. Also, only in white muscle, positive relationships were observed between 20S proteasome, CAT and GSH (only at 12 °C for the latter) activities. These results suggest a connection between mitochondrial capacity and protein degradation by the 20S proteasome but whether or not this link is mediated by the necessity to degrade protein oxidatively modified by mitochondrial ROS production remains an open question. -- A supplementary section presents a simple method devised to measure the fractional rate of protein synthesis in fish using the stable isotope labelled tracer (ring-D₅L-phenylalanine) instead of radioactive phenylalanine. The method takes advantage of the increasingly available technology of liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MSMS). The technique was validated by measuring the fractional rate of protein synthesis in the gills of goldfish (Carrassius auratus). The modified technique requires fewer steps compared to previously available procedures and allows studies on fish protein metabolism to be carried out in situations where the use of radioactivity is not possible, such as in free living animals

    Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus.

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    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins
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