4,171 research outputs found

    Adiabatic relativistic models for the jets in the radio galaxy 3C 31

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    We present a general approach to the modelling of the brightness and polarization structures of adiabatic, decelerating relativistic jets, based on the formalism of Matthews & Scheuer (1990). We compare the predictions of adiabatic jet models with deep, high-resolution observations of the radio jets in the FR I radio galaxy 3C 31. Adiabatic models require coupling between the variations of velocity, magnetic field and particle density. They are therefore more tightly constrained than the models previously presented for 3C 31 by Laing & Bridle (2002). We show that adiabatic models provide a poorer description of the data in two crucial respects: they cannot reproduce the observed magnetic-field structures in detail, and they also predict too steep a brightness decline along the jets for plausible variations of the jet velocity. We find that the innermost regions of the jets show the strongest evidence for non-adiabatic behaviour, and that the adiabatic models provide progressively better descriptions of the jet emission at larger distances from the galactic nucleus. We briefly discuss physical processes which might contribute to this non-adiabatic behaviour. In particular, we develop a parameterized description of distributed particle injection, which we fit to the observed total intensities. We show that particles are preferentially injected where bright X-ray emission is observed, and where we infer that the jets are over-pressured.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Relativistic jet models for two low-luminosity radio galaxies: evidence for backflow?

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    We show that asymmetries in total intensity and linear polarization between the radio jets and counter-jets in two lobed Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR I) radio galaxies, B2 0206+35 (UGC 1651) and B2 0755+37 (NGC 2484), can be accounted for if these jets are intrinsically symmetrical, with decelerating relativistic outflows surrounded by mildly relativistic backflows. Our interpretation is motivated by sensitive, well-resolved Very Large Array imaging which shows that both jets in both sources have a two-component structure transverse to their axes. Close to the jet axis, a centrally-darkened counter-jet lies opposite a centrally-brightened jet, but both are surrounded by broader collimated emission that is brighter on the counter-jet side. We have adapted our previous models of FR I jets as relativistic outflows to include an added component of symmetric backflow. We find that the observed radio emission, after subtracting contributions from the extended lobes, is well described by models in which decelerating outflows with parameters similar to those derived for jets in plumed FR I sources are surrounded by backflows containing predominantly toroidal magnetic fields. These return to within a few kpc of the galaxies with velocities of roughly 0.25c and radiate with a synchrotron spectral index close to 0.55. We discuss whether such backflow is to be expected in lobed FR I sources and suggest ways in which our hypothesis can be tested by further observations.Comment: 22 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Chandra Observation of M84, Radio Lobe Elliptical in Virgo cluster

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    We analyzed a deep Chandra observation of M84, a bright elliptical galaxy in the core of the Virgo cluster. We find that the spatial distribution of the soft X-ray emission is defined by the radio structure of the galaxy. In particular we find two low density regions associated with the radio lobes and surrounded by higher density X-ray filaments. In addition to a central AGN and a population of galactic sources, we find a diffuse hard source filling the central 10 kpc region. Since the morphology of the hard source appears round and is different from that seen in the radio or in soft X-rays, we propose that it is hot gas heated by the central AGN. Finally, we find that the central elemental abundance in the X-ray gas is comparable to that measured optically.Comment: accepted to ApJ Letters, Oct 2000. 5 pages in emulateap

    Multifrequency VLA observations of the FR I radio galaxy 3C 31: morphology, spectrum and magnetic field

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    We present high-quality VLA images of the FR I radio galaxy 3C 31 in the frequency range 1365 to 8440 MHz with angular resolutions from 0.25 to 40 arcsec. Our new images reveal complex, well resolved filamentary substructure in the radio jets and tails. We also use these images to explore the spectral structure of 3C 31 on large and small scales. We infer the apparent magnetic field structure by correcting for Faraday rotation. Some of the intensity substructure in the jets is clearly related to structure in their apparent magnetic field: there are arcs of emission where the degree of linear polarization increases, with the apparent magnetic field parallel to the ridges of the arcs. The spectral indices are significantly steeper (0.62) within 7 arcsec of the nucleus than between 7 and 50 arcsec (0.52 - 0.57). The spectra of the jet edges are also slightly flatter than the average for their surroundings. At larger distances, the jets are clearly delimited from surrounding larger-scale emission both by their flatter radio spectra and by sharp brightness gradients. The spectral index of 0.62 in the first 7 arcsec of 3C 31's jets is very close to that found in other FR I galaxies where their jets first brighten in the radio and where X-ray synchrotron emission is most prominent. Farther from the nucleus, where the spectra flatten, X-ray emission is fainter relative to the radio. The brightest X-ray emission from FR I jets is therefore not associated with the flattest radio spectra, but with a particle-acceleration process whose characteristic energy index is 2.24. The spectral flattening with distance from the nucleus occurs where our relativistic jet models require deceleration, and the flatter-spectra at the jet edges may be associated with transverse velocity shear. (Slightly abridged)Comment: 17 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Non-invasive, multichromatic eye oximeter Final report

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    Optical eye oximeter for measuring oxygen of choroidal blood for monitoring brain oxygen suppl
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