635 research outputs found

    Adult height and risk of gastric cancer: a pooled analysis within the Stomach cancer Pooling Project

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    Background: The association between height and risk of gastric cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies with contrasting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between adult height and gastric cancer within a large pooled analysis of case-control studies members of the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. Methods: Data from 18 studies members of the StoP consortium were collected and analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 10-cm increase in height and risk of gastric cancer. Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, social class, geographical area and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status were included in the regression model. Resulting estimates were then pooled with random-effect model. Analyses were conducted overall and in strata of selected variables. Results: A total of 7562 cases and 19 033 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting the results to the studies with information on H. pylori status, resulting in an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.79-1.20). Conclusion: Our study does not support a strong and consistent association between adult height and gastric cancer

    Weight Change and the Onset of Cardiovascular Diseases: Emulating Trials Using Electronic Health Records.

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    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional measures of body mass index (BMI) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, but less is known about whether weight change affects the risk of CVD. METHODS: We estimated the effect of 2-y weight change interventions on 7-y risk of CVD (CVD death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization from coronary heart disease, and heart failure) by emulating hypothetical interventions using electronic health records. We identified 138,567 individuals with 45-69 years of age without chronic disease in England from 1998 to 2016. We performed pooled logistic regression, using inverse-probability weighting to adjust for baseline and time-varying confounders. We categorized each individual into a weight loss, maintenance, or gain group. RESULTS: Among those of normal weight, both weight loss [risk difference (RD) vs. weight maintenance = 1.5% (0.3% to 3.0%)] and gain [RD = 1.3% (0.5% to 2.2%)] were associated with increased risk for CVD compared with weight maintenance. Among overweight individuals, we observed moderately higher risk of CVD in both the weight loss [RD = 0.7% (-0.2% to 1.7%)] and the weight gain group [RD = 0.7% (-0.1% to 1.7%)], compared with maintenance. In the obese, those losing weight showed lower risk of coronary heart disease [RD = -1.4% (-2.4% to -0.6%)] but not of stroke. When we assumed that chronic disease occurred 1-3 years before the recorded date, estimates for weight loss and gain were attenuated among overweight individuals; estimates for loss were lower among obese individuals. CONCLUSION: Among individuals with obesity, the weight-loss group had a lower risk of coronary heart disease but not of stroke. Weight gain was associated with increased risk of CVD across BMI groups. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B838

    Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cancer in the Swedish women’s lifestyle and health cohort

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    Objective To investigate whether intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with overall cancer incidence in a large prospective cohort of women in Sweden characterised by young age at enrolment (30–49 years) and relatively low intake of fruits and vegetables. Methods We followed prospectively 49,261 women, who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1991–1992. A total of 2,347 incident invasive cancer cases were identified until December 2006. The occurrence of cancer was analysed by fitting Poisson regression models, estimating incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The median intake of fruits and vegetables was 204 g/day (10th; 90th percentile: 37; 564 g/day). Intake of fruits and vegetables was not statistically significantly associated with overall cancer incidence. When we compared women in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetable intake to women in the lowest quintile, the RR for overall cancer was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.88–1.16). Similar results were obtained when investigating the effect of intake of fruits and vegetables separately and when we stratified women by age at follow-up. Conclusion Fruit and vegetable intake was not associated with risk of total cancer in this prospective cohort of women in Sweden

    Intrauterine exposures, pregnancy estrogens and breast cancer risk: where do we currently stand?

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    Since 1990, when a hypothesis on intrauterine influences on breast cancer risk was published, several studies have provided supportive, indirect evidence by documenting associations of birth weight and other correlates of the prenatal environment with breast cancer risk in offspring. Recent results from a unique cohort of women with documented exposure to diethylstilbestrol in utero have provided direct evidence in support of a potential role of pregnancy oestrogens on breast cancer risk in offspring

    Identifying adults at high-risk for change in weight and BMI in England: a longitudinal, large-scale, population-based cohort study using electronic health records.

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    Funder: Department of HealthFunder: Medical Research CouncilBackgroundTargeted obesity prevention policies would benefit from the identification of population groups with the highest risk of weight gain. The relative importance of adult age, sex, ethnicity, geographical region, and degree of social deprivation on weight gain is not known. We aimed to identify high-risk groups for changes in weight and BMI using electronic health records (EHR).MethodsIn this longitudinal, population-based cohort study we used linked EHR data from 400 primary care practices (via the Clinical Practice Research Datalink) in England, accessed via the CALIBER programme. Eligible participants were aged 18-74 years, were registered at a general practice clinic, and had BMI and weight measurements recorded between Jan 1, 1998, and June 30, 2016, during the period when they had eligible linked data with at least 1 year of follow-up time. We calculated longitudinal changes in BMI over 1, 5, and 10 years, and investigated the absolute risk and odds ratios (ORs) of transitioning between BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity class 1 and 2, and severe obesity [class 3]), as defined by WHO. The associations of demographic factors with BMI transitions were estimated by use of logistic regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BMI, family history of cardiovascular disease, use of diuretics, and prevalent chronic conditions.FindingsWe included 2 092 260 eligible individuals with more than 9 million BMI measurements in our study. Young adult age was the strongest risk factor for weight gain at 1, 5, and 10 years of follow-up. Compared with the oldest age group (65-74 years), adults in the youngest age group (18-24 years) had the highest OR (4·22 [95% CI 3·86-4·62]) and greatest absolute risk (37% vs 24%) of transitioning from normal weight to overweight or obesity at 10 years. Likewise, adults in the youngest age group with overweight or obesity at baseline were also at highest risk to transition to a higher BMI category; OR 4·60 (4·06-5·22) and absolute risk (42% vs 18%) of transitioning from overweight to class 1 and 2 obesity, and OR 5·87 (5·23-6·59) and absolute risk (22% vs 5%) of transitioning from class 1 and 2 obesity to class 3 obesity. Other demographic factors were consistently less strongly associated with these transitions; for example, the OR of transitioning from normal weight to overweight or obesity in people living in the most socially deprived versus least deprived areas was 1·23 (1·18-1·27), for men versus women was 1·12 (1·08-1·16), and for Black individuals versus White individuals was 1·13 (1·04-1·24). We provide an open access online risk calculator, and present high-resolution obesity risk charts over a 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up period.InterpretationA radical shift in policy is required to focus on individuals at the highest risk of weight gain (ie, young adults aged 18-24 years) for individual-level and population-level prevention of obesity and its long-term consequences for health and health care.FundingThe British Hearth Foundation, Health Data Research UK, the UK Medical Research Council, and the National Institute for Health Research

    Upregulation of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of COVID-19 Patients

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    Severe COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with the development of intense inflammatory responses during the course of infections with SARS-CoV-2. Given that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are known to be activated during and participate in inflammatory processes, we examined whether HERV dysregulation signatures are present in COVID-19 patients. By comparing transcriptomes of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) from patients and controls, we have shown that HERVs are intensely dysregulated in BALF of COVID-19 patients compared to those in BALF of healthy control patients but not in PBMCs. In particular, upregulation in the expression of specific HERV families was detected in BALF samples of COVID-19 patients, with HERV-FRD being the most highly upregulated family among the families analyzed. In addition, we compared the expression of HERVs in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) without and after senescence induction in an oncogene-induced senescence model in order to quantitatively measure changes in the expression of HERVs in bronchial cells during the process of cellular senescence. This apparent difference of HERV dysregulation between PBMCs and BALF warrants further studies in the involvement of HERVs in inflammatory pathogenetic mechanisms as well as exploration of HERVs as potential biomarkers for disease progression. Furthermore, the increase in the expression of HERVs in senescent HBECs in comparison to that in noninduced HBECs provides a potential link for increased COVID-19 severity and mortality in aged populations

    Plasma miR-151-3p as a Candidate Diagnostic Biomarker for Head and Neck Cancer: A Cross-sectional Study within the INHANCE Consortium

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    Background: Identification of screening tests for the detection of head and neck cancer (HNC) at an early stage is an important strategy to improving prognosis. Our objective was to identify plasma circulating miRNAs for the diagnosis of HNC (oral and laryngeal subsites), within a multicenter International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. Methods: A high-throughput screening phase with 754 miRNAs was performed in plasma samples of 88 cases and 88 controls, followed by a validation phase of the differentially expressed miRNAs, identified in the screening, in samples of 396 cases and 396 controls. Comparison of the fold changes (FC) was carried out using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Dunn multiple comparison test. Results: We identified miR-151-3p (FC = 1.73, P = 0.007) as differentially expressed miRNAs in the screening and validation phase. The miR-151-3p was the only overexpressed miRNA in validation sample of patients with HNC with early stage at diagnosis (FC = 1.81, P = 0.008) and it was confirmed upregulated both in smoker early-stage cases (FC = 3.52, P = 0.024) and in nonsmoker early-stage cases (FC = 1.60, P = 0.025) compared with controls. Conclusions: We identified miR-151-3p as an early marker of HNC. This miRNA was the only upregulated in patients at early stages of the disease, independently of the smoking status. Impact: The prognosis for HNC is still poor. The discovery of a new diagnostic biomarker could lead to an earlier tumor discovery and therefore to an improvement in patient prognosis