13 research outputs found

    Strategies for protecting intellectual property when using CUDA applications on graphics processing units

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    Recent advances in the massively parallel computational abilities of graphical processing units (GPUs) have increased their use for general purpose computation, as companies look to take advantage of big data processing techniques. This has given rise to the potential for malicious software targeting GPUs, which is of interest to forensic investigators examining the operation of software. The ability to carry out reverse-engineering of software is of great importance within the security and forensics elds, particularly when investigating malicious software or carrying out forensic analysis following a successful security breach. Due to the complexity of the Nvidia CUDA (Compute Uni ed Device Architecture) framework, it is not clear how best to approach the reverse engineering of a piece of CUDA software. We carry out a review of the di erent binary output formats which may be encountered from the CUDA compiler, and their implications on reverse engineering. We then demonstrate the process of carrying out disassembly of an example CUDA application, to establish the various techniques available to forensic investigators carrying out black-box disassembly and reverse engineering of CUDA binaries. We show that the Nvidia compiler, using default settings, leaks useful information. Finally, we demonstrate techniques to better protect intellectual property in CUDA algorithm implementations from reverse engineering

    Hybridised sustainability metrics for use in life cycle assessment of bio-based products: resource efficiency and circularity

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    The development, implementation and social acceptance of resource efficient, circular, bio-based economies require critical understanding of the whole supply chain from feedstock to end-use. Trust, transparency and traceability will be paramount. Though life cycle assessment (LCA) is a universally chosen approach to fulfil this purpose, the nature of data required and the depth of analysis lead to complex interpretations of the findings. Herein, a new set of hybridised, first-line sustainability indicators, drawn from the principles of green chemistry and resource (material and energy) circularity, are reported. These flexible, potentially stand-alone metrics are demonstrated via application to an exemplary comparative LCA, incorporating the hybridised indicators including hazardous chemical use, waste generated, resource circularity and energy efficiency, from the “gate-to-gate” stages for the bio-based case studies and their petro-derived commercial counterparts. These metrics were observed to quantify critical new information relevant to our transition to a circular economy, bridging significant gaps in contemporary environmental impact assessment methodologies. Appropriate additional evaluations that examine the performance of metrics, when the embedded resource efficiency and circularity strategies are omitted, have also been undertaken and reported. The data drawn from employing these methods are crucial to inform and encourage operational optimisation, transparency in sustainability reporting and practices to a significant number of value-chain actors including manufacturers, policy makers and consumers

    Integrated chemical and biochemical technology to produce biogas with a reduced ammonia content from municipal biowaste. Validating lab-scale research in a real operational environment

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    The current paper reports the scientific, technical, environmental, economic and social impacts of two integrated chemical and biochemical processes that employed a novel virtuous biowaste cycle under real operational conditions of three industrial sites in Italy, Greece and Cyprus. The work was based on previous laboratory research pertinent to the valorisation of municipal biowastes (MBWs) as a feedstock to obtain value added soluble biobased (SBO) products. The research pointed out that the site-specific nature of MBW was the main criticality, which could potentially hinder the industrialisation of the MBW-SBO paradigm. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a new scenario for a conventional waste treatment plan collecting and processing MBWs by anaerobic and aerobic fermentation. In essence, the virtuous biowaste cycle is realised by producing SBO from the plant MBW (process 1) and recirculating it to the MBW feed of the anaerobic fermentation reactor to reduce the ammonia content in the digestate (process 2). This mitigates the digestate's environmental impact. Life cycle sustainability assessment demonstrates that the use of SBO produced from local MBW allowed reducing the ammonia content of the digestate generated from the local anaerobic fermentation facilities in the three different countries by 21–68% as well its eutrophication potential. Process 2 allowed at least 86% OPEX cost saving compared to conventional digestate post-treatment technologies for ammonia abatement, while paying off the CAPEX cost in less than one year. Socio-economic analysis evaluated the impacts on workers and local community stakeholders, potentially stemming from the implementation of processes 1 and 2 at European level. The analysis of SBO composition and performances in each operational site investigated showed that improved performance of process 2 might be achieved by isolating the active principles in raw SBO prior to their use in process 2. Chemical and biochemical catalysis by SBO active principles in process 2 support the specific perspective

    Accuracy of continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

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    OBJECTIVE: Continuous assessment of central venous oxygen saturation (S(cevox)O(2)) with the CeVOX device (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany) was evaluated against central venous oxygen saturation (S(cv)O(2)) determined by co-oximetry. METHODS: In 20 cardiac surgical patients, a CeVOX fiberoptic probe was introduced into a standard central venous catheter placed in the right internal jugular vein and advanced 2-3 cm beyond the catheter tip. After in vivo calibration of the probe, S(cevox)O(2), S(cv)O(2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (S(mv)O(2)) haemoglobin (Hb), body temperature, heart rate, central venous and mean arterial pressure, and cardiac index were assessed simultaneously at 30 min intervals during surgery and at 60 min intervals during recovery in the intensive care unit. Agreement between S(cevox)O(2), and S(cv)O(2) was determined by Bland-Altman analysis. Simple regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of S(cevox)O(2), and S(cv)O(2) to Hb, body temperature and haemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: Values of S(cevox)O(2) and S(cv)O(2) (84 data pairs during surgery and 106 in the intensive care unit) ranged between 45-89% and 43-90%, respectively. Mean bias and limits of agreement of S(cevox)O(2) and S(cv)O(2) were -0.9 (-7.9/+6.1)% during surgery and -1.2 (-10.5/+8.1)% in the intensive care unit. In 37.9% of all measured data pairs, the difference between S(cevox)O(2) and S(cv)O(2) was beyond clinically acceptable limits (>/=1 s.d.). Mean bias was significantly influenced by cardiac index. Sensitivity and specificity of S(cevox)O(2) to detect substantial (>/=1 s.d.) changes in S(cv)O(2) were 89 and 82%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients during and after cardiac surgery, the current version of the CeVOX device might not be the tool to replace S(cv)O(2) determined by co-oxymetry, although sensitivity and specificity of S(cevox)O(2 )to predict substantial changes in S(cv)O(2) were acceptable

    From system to organ to cell: oxygenation and perfusion measurement in anesthesia and critical care

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    Maintenance or restoration of adequate tissue oxygenation is a main goal of anesthesiologic and intensive care patient management. Pathophysiological disturbances which interfere with aerobic metabolism may occur at any stage in the oxygen cascade from atmospheric gas to the mitochondria, and there is no single monitoring modality that allows comprehensive determination of “the oxygenation”. To facilitate early detection of tissue hypoxia (or hyperoxia) and to allow a goal directed therapy targeted at the underlying problem, the anesthesiologist and intensive care physician require a thorough understanding of the numerous determinants that influence cellular oxygenation. This article reviews the basic physiology of oxygen uptake and delivery to tissues as well as the options to monitor determinants of oxygenation at different stages from the alveolus to the cell

    The Palaeolimnology of Lough Murree, A Brackish Lake in the Burren, Ireland

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