8,206 research outputs found

### Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background originating from Halo Mergers

The stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB) from halo mergers is
investigated by a quasi-analytic method. The method we employ consists of two
steps. The first step is to construct a merger tree by using the Extended
Press-Schechter formalism or the Sheth & Tormen formalism, with Monte-Carlo
realizations. This merger tree provides evolution of halo masses. From $N$-body
simulation of two-halo mergers, we can estimate the amount of gravitational
wave emission induced by the individual merger process. Therefore the second
step is to combine this gravitaional wave emission to the merger tree and
obtain the amplitude of GWB. We find $\Omega_{GW}\sim 10^{-19}$ for $f\sim
10^{-17}-10^{-16}$ Hz, where $\Omega_{GW}$ is the energy density of the GWB. It
turns out that most of the contribution on the GWB comes from halos with masses
below $10^{15} M_\odot$ and mergers at low redshift, i.e., $0<z<0.8$.Comment: 5 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in Physical Review

### Chemistry of aminoacylation of 5'-AMO and the origin of protein synthesis

Much of our recent work has been a study of aminoacyl AMP derivatives. Elucidation of the character of aminoacyl AMP derivatives has made it obvious that AMP has characteristics which should allow it to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of L-amino acid peptides. The essential features which lead to this conclusion are that all l-amino acids (but not all D amino acids) when esterified to 5'-AMP preferentially (65 percent) distribute to the 3' position of the 5'-AMP; that esterification is predominantly at the 2' position; that 2', 3' diaminoacyl esters are readily formed; and that a peptide bond can be formed between adjacent 2',3' aminoacyl esters

### Toward an Improved Analytical Description of Lagrangian Bias

We carry out a detailed numerical investigation of the spatial correlation
function of the initial positions of cosmological dark matter halos. In this
Lagrangian coordinate system, which is especially useful for analytic studies
of cosmological feedback, we are able to construct cross-correlation functions
of objects with varying masses and formation redshifts and compare them with a
variety of analytical approaches. For the case in which both formation
redshifts are equal, we find good agreement between our numerical results and
the bivariate model of Scannapieco & Barkana (2002; SB02) at all masses,
redshifts, and separations, while the model of Porciani et al. (1998) does well
for all parameters except for objects with different masses at small
separations. We find that the standard mapping between Lagrangian and Eulerian
bias performs well for rare objects at all separations, but fails if the
objects are highly-nonlinear (low-sigma) peaks. In the Lagrangian case in which
the formation redshifts differ, the SB02 model does well for all separations
and combinations of masses, apart from a discrepancy at small separations in
situations in which the smaller object is formed earlier and the difference
between redshifts or masses is large. As this same limitation arises in the
standard approach to the single-point progenitor distribution developed by
Lacey & Cole (1993), we conclude that a more complete understanding of the
progenitor distribution is the most important outstanding issue in the analytic
modeling of Lagrangian bias.Comment: 22 pages, 8 figures, ApJ, in pres

### Measuring the Cosmic Equation of State with Counts of Galaxies

The classical dN/dz test allows the determination of fundamental cosmological
parameters from the evolution of the cosmic volume element. This test is
applied by measuring the redshift distribution of a tracer whose evolution in
number density is known. In the past, ordinary galaxies have been used as such
a tracer; however, in the absence of a complete theory of galaxy formation,
that method is fraught with difficulties. In this paper, we propose studying
instead the evolution of the apparent abundance of dark matter halos as a
function of their circular velocity, observable via the linewidths or rotation
speeds of visible galaxies. Upcoming redshift surveys will allow the linewidth
distribution of galaxies to be determined at both z~1 and the present day. In
the course of studying this test, we have devised a rapid, improved
semi-analytic method for calculating the circular velocity distribution of dark
halos based upon the analytic mass function of Sheth et al. (1999) and the
formation time distribution of Lacey & Cole (1993). We find that if selection
effects are well-controlled and minimal external constraints are applied, the
planned DEEP Redshift Survey should allow the measurement of the cosmic
equation-of-state parameter w to 10% (as little as 3% if Omega_m has been
well-determined from other observations). This type of test has the potential
also to provide a constraint on any evolution of w such as that predicted by
``tracker'' models.Comment: 4 pages plus 3 embedded figures; version approved by Ap. J. Letters.
A greatly improved error analysis has been added, along with a figure showing
complementarity to other cosmological test

### Predictions from Star Formation in the Multiverse

We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning
simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast,
and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the
divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In
one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced
by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10 billion years)
after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer
models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a
recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable
refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological
properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer
model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability
distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed, and
marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more
strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed
parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central $2\sigma$ of nearly all
probability distributions we compute, and always within $3\sigma$. This success
is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension
of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long
as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a
novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with
the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.Comment: 68 pages, 19 figure

### Effective Screening due to Minihalos During the Epoch of Reionization

We show that the gaseous halos of collapsed objects introduce a substantial
cumulative opacity to ionizing radiation, even after the smoothly distributed
hydrogen in the intergalactic medium has been fully reionized. This opacity
causes a delay of around unity in redshift between the time of the overlap of
ionized bubbles in the intergalactic medium and the lifting of complete
Gunn-Peterson Lyman alpha absorption. The minihalos responsible for this
screening effect are not resolved by existing numerical simulations of
reionization.Comment: 24 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Ap

### Mass of Clusters in Simulations

We show that dark matter haloes, in n--body simulations, have a boundary
layer (BL) with precise features. In particular, it encloses all dynamically
stable mass while, outside it, dynamical stability is lost soon. Particles can
pass through such BL, which however acts as a confinement barrier for dynamical
properties. BL is set by evaluating kinetic and potential energies (T(r) and
W(r)) and calculating R=-2T/W. Then, on BL, R has a minimum which closely
approaches a maximum of w= -dlog W/dlog r. Such $Rw$ ``requirement'' is
consistent with virial equilibrium, but implies further regularities. We test
the presence of a BL around haloes in spatially flat CDM simulations, with or
without cosmological constant. We find that the mass M_c, enclosed within the
radius r_c, where the $Rw$ requirement is fulfilled, closely approaches the
mass M_{dyn}, evaluated from the velocities of all particles within r_c,
according to the virial theorem. Using r_c we can then determine an individual
density contrast Delta_c for each virialized halo, which can be compared with
the "virial" density contrast $\Delta_v ~178 \Omega_m^{0.45}$ (Omega_m: matter
density parameter) obtained assuming a spherically symmetric and unperturbed
fluctuation growth. The spread in Delta_c is wide, and cannot be neglected when
global physical quantities related to the clusters are calculated, while the
average Delta_c is ~25 % smaller than the corresponding Delta_v; moreover if
$M_{dyn}$ is defined from the radius linked to Delta_v, we have a much worse
fit with particle mass then starting from {\it Rw} requirement.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, contribution to the XXXVIIth Rencontres de
Moriond, The Cosmological Model, Les Arc March 16-23 2002, to appear in the
proceeding

### Pointwise convergence of vector-valued Fourier series

We prove a vector-valued version of Carleson's theorem: Let Y=[X,H]_t be a
complex interpolation space between a UMD space X and a Hilbert space H. For
p\in(1,\infty) and f\in L^p(T;Y), the partial sums of the Fourier series of f
converge to f pointwise almost everywhere. Apparently, all known examples of
UMD spaces are of this intermediate form Y=[X,H]_t. In particular, we answer
affirmatively a question of Rubio de Francia on the pointwise convergence of
Fourier series of Schatten class valued functions.Comment: 26 page

### Formation time distribution of dark matter haloes: theories versus N-body simulations

This paper uses numerical simulations to test the formation time distribution
of dark matter haloes predicted by the analytic excursion set approaches. The
formation time distribution is closely linked to the conditional mass function
and this test is therefore an indirect probe of this distribution. The
excursion set models tested are the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) model, the
ellipsoidal collapse (EC) model, and the non-spherical collapse boundary (NCB)
model. Three sets of simulations (6 realizations) have been used to investigate
the halo formation time distribution for halo masses ranging from dwarf-galaxy
like haloes ($M=10^{-3} M_*$, where $M_*$ is the characteristic non-linear mass
scale) to massive haloes of $M=8.7 M_*$. None of the models can match the
simulation results at both high and low redshift. In particular, dark matter
haloes formed generally earlier in our simulations than predicted by the EPS
model. This discrepancy might help explain why semi-analytic models of galaxy
formation, based on EPS merger trees, under-predict the number of high redshift
galaxies compared with recent observations.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

### Dark-Halo Cusp: Asymptotic Convergence

We propose a model for how the buildup of dark halos by merging satellites
produces a characteristic inner cusp, of a density profile \rho \prop r^-a with
a -> a_as > 1, as seen in cosmological N-body simulations of hierarchical
clustering scenarios. Dekel, Devor & Hetzroni (2003) argue that a flat core of
a<1 exerts tidal compression which prevents local deposit of satellite
material; the satellite sinks intact into the halo center thus causing a rapid
steepening to a>1. Using merger N-body simulations, we learn that this cusp is
stable under a sequence of mergers, and derive a practical tidal mass-transfer
recipe in regions where the local slope of the halo profile is a>1. According
to this recipe, the ratio of mean densities of halo and initial satellite
within the tidal radius equals a given function psi(a), which is significantly
smaller than unity (compared to being 1 according to crude resonance criteria)
and is a decreasing function of a. This decrease makes the tidal mass transfer
relatively more efficient at larger a, which means steepening when a is small
and flattening when a is large, thus causing converges to a stable solution.
Given this mass-transfer recipe, linear perturbation analysis, supported by toy
simulations, shows that a sequence of cosmological mergers with homologous
satellites slowly leads to a fixed-point cusp with an asymptotic slope a_as>1.
The slope depends only weakly on the fluctuation power spectrum, in agreement
with cosmological simulations. During a long interim period the profile has an
NFW-like shape, with a cusp of 1<a<a_as. Thus, a cusp is enforced if enough
compact satellite remnants make it intact into the inner halo. In order to
maintain a flat core, satellites must be disrupted outside the core, possibly
as a result of a modest puffing up due to baryonic feedback.Comment: 37 pages, Latex, aastex.cls, revised, ApJ, 588, in pres

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