13 research outputs found

    The Impact of Caregiver and Community Education On Influenza Vaccination Acceptance

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    Introduction: Pediatric populations are particularly vulnerable to influenza, and rely on parental approval of the pediatric influenza vaccine (PIV). We conducted a survey to better understand our community’s perspective on the PIV. Methods: An urban pediatric clinic’s records were gathered for the 2017-2019 flu seasons (i.e., pre-survey period). Surveys were distributed during the 2019-2020 flu season to assess vaccination status and their reasoning for acceptance or rejection of the PIV for their child(ren). Children vaccination rates were divided into 3 groups: 6 months-3 years, 3-5 years, and 5-18 years. Results: During the 2017-2018 flu season, the overall vaccination rate (n=1791) was 34.1%. For the 2018-2019 flu season, the overall vaccination rate (n=1795) was 41.7%. During the 2019-2020 flu season, the overall vaccination rate (n=1620) increased to 45.3%. This was a statistically significant increase from 2018-2019 flu season (p=0.035). The most common reason to vaccinate was, I do not want my child to get the flu/the shot reduces the likelihood of child getting the flu (52.2% in \u3c5 years age group, 56.5% in \u3e5 years age group). The most common reason to not vaccinate was, I do not want the flu shot for my child (35.7% in \u3c5 years age group, 38.6% in \u3e5 years age group). Discussion: Understanding community perceptions will allow for efficacious educational materials and allow healthcare providers to tailor their strategies for the sake of preventive medicine and community health

    Bi-allelic Loss-of-Function CACNA1B Mutations in Progressive Epilepsy-Dyskinesia.

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    The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.MAK is funded by an NIHR Research Professorship and receives funding from the Wellcome Trust, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital Charity, and Rosetrees Trust. E.M. received funding from the Rosetrees Trust (CD-A53) and Great Ormond Street Hospital Children's Charity. K.G. received funding from Temple Street Foundation. A.M. is funded by Great Ormond Street Hospital, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), and Biomedical Research Centre. F.L.R. and D.G. are funded by Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. K.C. and A.S.J. are funded by NIHR Bioresource for Rare Diseases. The DDD Study presents independent research commissioned by the Health Innovation Challenge Fund (grant number HICF-1009-003), a parallel funding partnership between the Wellcome Trust and the Department of Health, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (grant number WT098051). We acknowledge support from the UK Department of Health via the NIHR comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy's and St. Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. This research was also supported by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research Centre. J.H.C. is in receipt of an NIHR Senior Investigator Award. The research team acknowledges the support of the NIHR through the Comprehensive Clinical Research Network. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, Department of Health, or Wellcome Trust. E.R.M. acknowledges support from NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, an NIHR Senior Investigator Award, and the University of Cambridge has received salary support in respect of E.R.M. from the NHS in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve. I.E.S. is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Program Grant and Practitioner Fellowship)

    Taphonomic Changes in Vertebrate Osteological Collections

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    This research project will use an experimental approach to address forensic questions regarding sharp force trauma to various bone sizes. This will produce a taphonomic comparative collection to aid in the recognition of types of damage to bones of various osteologic characteristics. I will use deer and elk limb bones as a proxy for adult human remains and rabbit long bones as a proxy for juvenile human remains. To reproduce various sharp force injuries to these bones we will use an axe, handheld saw, hatchet, and a six-inch hunting knife. The various sharp tools will be applied to the rabbit and the deer bones, and the marks on the bones will then be compared to observe how differently sized bones can impact the taphonomic effects produced. Specifically, we will do eight experimental trials. The first four trials will include one for each tool type on each size of fleshed animal bone. The second four trials will include one for each tool type on each size of de-fleshed animal bone. Comparing tool marks on fleshed versus de-fleshed animal bone will provide key information about how the presence of soft tissue influences what marks are produced on bone. This comparative collection can be used by future students to learn and recognize these key taphonomic differences that sharp tools can produce in adult versus juvenile bone. The various bones used will be photographed and documented regarding the marks and breakages produced by the sharp force tools. This project is significant because it will help further forensic knowledge and increase efficacy of identifying and recovering bones

    Identification of Mammal and Bird Bones in an Archaeological Context

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    This research project uses a scientific approach to identify and illustrate morphological criteria to help zooarchaeologists differentiate between fragmented bones of mammals and birds. When bones are fragmentary, it becomes much harder to identify them taxonomically, and since most bone in an archaeological context is fragmented, there is a risk of confusing taxa that share certain osteological traits. Although studies exist for whole bone comparison, some elements are much more easily distinguishable, leaving those as the ones most often documented. Elements such as pedal phalanges, vertebrae, and long bone shafts are often left out of published comparisons; this is a gap I hope to address, specifically as it pertains to two small-bodied animals, rabbits and ducks. I will prepare a comparative osteological specimen of one rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) and one duck (Anas platyrhynchos). To increase my sample size and capture more individual variation, I will also use the existing UWM Zooarchaeological Comparative Collection, which includes several specimens of each of those species. The two animals chosen for my preparation are of similar size, which will make it easier to control for that variable. Additionally, both selected animals are species that are commonly found at local Wisconsin archaeological sites, thus this study has practical applications. At the end, I hope to have a comparative collection of rabbit and duck long bone shaft fragments, as well as illustrated descriptions of other morphological identifying features for elements that are commonly confused (eg. pedal phalanges and vertebrae). The distinctions between certain bird and mammal bones from archaeological contexts is a challenge I have run into in my own studies, and I intend to use my research to make those identifications easier for other students and zooarchaeologists

    Decomposition Rates in Freshwater vs. Saltwater

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    This research project uses an experimental approach to address forensic questions about the difference in rate of decomposition between aquatic environments while controlling for insect activity. The data collected from this research will help to further knowledge about how different aquatic environments affect post mortem interval. The experiment will involve submerging whole bodied fleshed rabbits into freshwater and saltwater to analyze the rate of decomposition over a period of six weeks. I will submerge two rabbits in containers of saltwater and two in containers of freshwater. The freshwater will be samples from Lake Michigan and the saltwater will be made by dissolving 35 grams of salt per liter of water to simulate average ocean salinity. To further simulate the differing environments, the freshwater containers will be kept in a location roughly the temperature of the water when it is collected, and the saltwater containers will be kept around room temperature (~70 degrees F). The water temperature will be tracked using a thermometer at each check-in on average every other day. To control for and prevent insect activity, I will place lids on the containers the rabbits are placed in. I will track the five stages of decomposition, recording the characteristics and visual appearance on average every other day. I will be taking photos that correlate with the notes taken about the progression of decomposition. This project will focus on the initial stages of decomposition, and additional work will further track the decomposition of these animals beyond the six week study period

    Burn, Chop, Drown: A Forensic Analysis of Taphonomic Effects on Bone

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    This research focuses on building a comparative collection of the taphonomic impacts of fire on bone. The methodology is to use deer limb bones as a proxy for human limb bones to demonstrate how fire can influence the color of bone in a zooarchaeological setting while simultaneously duplicating a hasty and controlled burn in a forensic context. Using experimental archaeology, tracking temperature, and duration of time under heat, I will create a comparative collection to highlight the specific colors bone changes to when exposed to different specific temperatures. In the forensic context, a hasty burn is to replicate a desperate attempt at hiding evidence. The controlled burn simulates a premeditated action at hiding evidence. The resulting altered bones for both experiments will be used as teaching aids for future students. The vessel used for burning to reproduce the forensic conditions is an aluminum garbage can modified into a burn barrel. The burn vessel used for burning in a zooarchaeological context is a propane grill. The grill allows us to control for temperature and compare findings to prior research. Temperature will be taken using the Tekcoplus Thermocouple-4 channel-thermometer that allows us to directly measure the fire in the burn barrel. Temperature will be taken every 15 minutes and recorded. The propane grill has a built-in thermometer, which will be used to take and record heat exposure ranging from 300F to 700F. These temperatures reflect previously documented ranges at which bone color changes from yellow to black to blue to white. I will burn two fleshed deer hind limbs in the burn barrel in two different trials and then six de-fleshed deer tibiae in the propane grill in three different trials. This project is significant because it will provide additional information about how bone responds to different thermal stressors

    Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study

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    Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.status: publishe

    Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study

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    Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments. Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling. The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions. Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity

    Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood: An individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts

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    Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1‚Äď19‚ÄČyears. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments

    Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project

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    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes
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