59 research outputs found

    Relationships among some serum enzymes, negative energy balance parameters, parity and postparturient clinical (endo)metritis in Holstein Friesian cows – Short communication

    Get PDF
    Activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and concentrations of serum metabolites [beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)] of primiparous (n = 83) and multiparous (n = 213) Holstein cows were studied as possible predictors of retained fetal membranes (RFM), grade 2 clinical metritis (CM) and clinical endometritis (CEM). A logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the prevalence of CM diagnosed between 0–5, 6–10 and 11–20 days in milk (DIM) and for the prevalence of CEM diagnosed between 22–28 and 42–49 DIM. The activities of the examined serum enzymes did not show significant associations either with CM or with CEM. For NEFA sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 2.38 for CM 0–20 DIM and an OR of 2.58 for CM 11–20 DIM was found. For BHB sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 8.20 for CEM 22–28 and 42–49 DIM and an OR of 1.98 for CM 6–10 DIM were found. The prevalence of RFM was higher in ≥ 4 parity cows compared to primiparous cows (46.3% vs. 26.5%). BHB and NEFA levels measured between 0 and 5 DIM could have a predictive ability for postpartum uterine disorders such as RFM, CM and CEM

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Outbreaks in West Java Indonesia 2015-2016: Clinical Manifestation and Associated Risk Factors

    No full text
    Knowledge of outbreaks and associated risk factors is helpful to improve control of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) virus (HPAI) in Indonesia. This study was conducted to detect outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 in endemically infected regions by enhanced passive surveillance, to describe the clinical manifestation of these outbreaks and identify associated risk factors. From November 2015 to November 2016, HPAI outbreak investigations were conducted in seven districts of West Java. In total 64 outbreaks were confirmed out of 75 reported suspicions and outbreak characteristics were recorded. The highest mortality was reported in backyard chickens (average 59%, CI95%: 49-69%). Dermal apoptosis and lesions (64%, CI95%: 52-76%) and respiratory signs (39%, CI95%: 27-51%) were the clinical signs observed overall most frequently, while neurological signs were most frequently observed in ducks (68%, CI95%: 47-90%). In comparison with 60 non-infected control farms, the rate of visitor contacts onto a farm was associated with the odds of HPAI infection. Moreover, duck farms had higher odds of being infected than backyard farms, and larger farms had lower odds than small farms. Results indicate that better external biosecurity is needed to reduce transmission of HPAI A(H5N1) in Indonesia

    Assessment of the control measures of the category A diseases of Animal Health Law: Classical Swine Fever

    No full text
    EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law'). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be assessed, with this opinion covering the assessment of control measures for Classical swine fever (CSF). In this opinion, EFSA and the AHAW Panel of experts review the effectiveness of: (i) clinical and laboratory sampling procedures, (ii) monitoring period and (iii) the minimum radii of the protection and surveillance zones, and the minimum length of time the measures should be applied in these zones. The general methodology used for this series of opinions has been published elsewhere; nonetheless, details of the model used for answering these questions are presented in this opinion as well as the transmission kernels used for the assessment of the minimum radius of the protection and surveillance zones. Several scenarios for which these control measures had to be assessed were designed and agreed prior to the start of the assessment. Here, several recommendations are given on how to increase the effectiveness of some of the sampling procedures. Based on the average length of the period between virus introduction and the reporting of a CSF suspicion, the monitoring period was assessed as non-effective. In a similar way, it was recommended that the length of the measures in the protection and surveillance zones were increased from 15 to 25 days in the protection zone and from 30 to 40 days in the surveillance zone. Finally, the analysis of existing Kernels for CSF suggested that the radius of the protection and the surveillance zones comprise 99% of the infections from an affected establishment if transmission occurred. Recommendations provided for each of the scenarios assessed aim to support the European Commission in the drafting of further pieces of legislation, as well as for plausible ad hoc requests in relation to CSF

    Monitoring welfare in practice on Dutch dairy farms

    No full text
    The results of three welfare assessment protocols have been correlated with the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol on 60 dairy farms in the Netherlands. After adaptations to the WQ protocol, an alternative assessment protocol could be constructed of components of the other three. This had a correlation with the adapted WQ of 0.88. Execution of this new welfare monitor takes approximately 1.5 h for a farm with 100 dairy cows. This protocol is now being integrated in the Koekompas (=Cow Compass), a management assistance tool

    Ability of Massachusetts-type infectious bronchitis virus to increase colibacillosis susceptibility in commercial broilers: a comparison between vaccine and virulent field virus

    No full text
    The abilities of Massachusetts-type vaccine virus and virulent infectious bronchitis (IB) field virus to increase colibacillosis susceptibility were compared. In four experiments, 29-day-old female commercial broilers housed in isolators, were infected intratracheally and oculonasally with IB vaccine strains (H120 and H52) or virulent IB field strains (D387 and M41) (4.8 or 6.8 log(10) median embryo infective dose, per broiler). Five days later, Escherichia coli 506 strain was given intratracheally (5.6 to 8.8 log(10) colony forming units/broiler). The incidence of nasal discharge at 3 and 5 days after IB virus infection was used to assess the clinical effect of the IB infection, while mortality, body weight uniformity and E. coli lesions at 7 days following E. coli inoculation were used as parameters for colibacillosis. Nasal discharge was observed in 6/117 (5%), 26/119 (22%), 35/119 (29%) and 115/120 (96%) of broilers infected with H120, H52, D387 and M41 virus, respectively. Apart from H52 and D387, differences between IBV strains were significant. IB vaccine and virulent IB viruses did not generally differ significantly in their ability to induce colibacillosis susceptibility. Mean colibacillosis lesion scores of H52-infected birds even significantly exceeded those of birds infected with the other IB viruses. The ability of H120 virus to induce colibacillosis susceptibility tended to be the weakest. The practical consequences of these findings are discussed

    Monitoring welfare in practice on Dutch dairy farms

    No full text
    The results of three welfare assessment protocols have been correlated with the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol on 60 dairy farms in the Netherlands. After adaptations to the WQ protocol, an alternative assessment protocol could be constructed of components of the other three. This had a correlation with the adapted WQ of 0.88. Execution of this new welfare monitor takes approximately 1.5 h for a farm with 100 dairy cows. This protocol is now being integrated in the Koekompas (=Cow Compass), a management assistance tool

    Improving antimicrobial residue surveillance in finishing pigs by risk-based sampling designs

    No full text
    EU Member States are obliged by legislation to implement residue surveillance programs to detect illegal use or misuse of veterinary medicines in food producing animals and investigate the reasons for residue violations. According to EU legislation, these programs should be (partly) risk-based, meaning targeted towards groups of animals, where the probability of finding residues is the highest. There is however no default surveillance procedure describing the most efficient way to do so. In this study, a quantitative analysis was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of detecting antimicrobial residues in finishing pigs via risk-based sampling of carcasses. A stochastic scenario tree analysis was applied to estimate the sensitivity of random and risk-based sampling strategies to detect a contaminated carcass. In these models, the probability was calculated that a single carcass will yield a positive outcome when subjected to the testing protocol laid down in the design, given that contamination with antimicrobial residues is prevalent in the herd of origin at the level of the design prevalence. Two design prevalences were used: 0.01% (the assumed true prevalence of residue-positive carcasses) and 0.22% (the prevalence that can be detected using the sample size laid down in EU legislation). In the random design, it was assumed that the carcasses examined for presence of antimicrobial residues were selected randomly from all finishing pigs slaughtered in a year. In the risk-based design, two risk factors were taken into account. First, a high prevalence of chronic pleuritis and pneumonia in the herd of origin was assessed. Secondly, the route of administration of antimicrobials (oral/parenteral) via visual inspection of skin lesions indicative of injectables was used as an additional risk factor. Results showed that the probability of detecting a residue-positive carcass doubled when surveillance was targeted at pigs originating from herds with a high prevalence of chronic pleuritis and pneumonia (compared to random sampling), at similar costs of testing. Including administration route as an additional risk factor led to a negligible increase in sensitivity. Nevertheless, sensitivity values at unit level remained extremely low due to the very low prevalence of antimicrobial residues in pigs. In this study, risk-based alternatives to random sampling improved the cost-effectiveness of residue surveillance in slaughter pigs in the Netherlands, which could be used to enhance current programs and to increase awareness in food business operators

    Qualified but not yet fully competent: Perceptions of recent veterinary graduates on their day-one skills

    No full text
    Background: The goal of veterinary education is to prepare learners to successfully enter the profession. However, the transition from learner to professional can be an intense and stressful phase. In this study, recently graduated veterinarians' perceptions of readiness to work independently and to successfully cope with early career challenges are addressed. Methods: A survey based on five commonly occurring entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in primary care was sent to newly qualified veterinarians (graduated between six months and three-and-a-half years ago and working in primary veterinary clinics). The survey was a combination of open and Likert scale-type questions and contained items on the self-reported need for supervision for these EPAs. One hundred and fifty-six participants (response rate 41.2 per cent) answered the survey. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse and present the quantitative data. Results: The day-one after graduation levels varied per EPA between ? €? with direct, proactive supervision' and ? €? supervision at a distance'. On average after 6.8 months participants felt ready to execute all five tasks with distant supervision. After almost 10 months, participants had the feeling of being fully competent to execute the EPAs unsupervised. Conclusion: This study provides insight into early career challenges faced by recently graduated veterinarians. The results emphasise the importance of adequate preparation of veterinarians during education and the importance of guidance during early career to foster a successful transition from veterinary school to clinical practice

    Changing surveillance objectives during the different phases of an emerging vector-borne disease outbreak: The Schmallenberg virus example

    No full text
    In the late summer of 2011, a sudden rise in incidence of fever, drop in milk production and diarrhoea was observed in dairy cows in the eastern region of the Netherlands and in north-western Germany. In the autumn of 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus was identified by metagenomic analyses in samples from acutely diseased cows on a farm near the German city of Schmallenberg, and was thereafter named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Due to the novelty of the virus, there was an immediate need for knowledge regarding the epidemiological characteristics of SBV-infections to inform surveillance and control strategies. A rapid assessment of the spread and impact of an emerging disease supports decision-makers on allocation of resources. This paper reviews the disease mitigation activities during and after the SBV epidemic in the Netherlands, to illustrate the phases in surveillance when a new (vector-borne) pathogen emerges in a country or region. Immediate and short-term disease mitigation activities that were initiated after SBV was identified are discussed in detail, as well as ways to enhance future surveillance (e.g. by syndromic surveillance) and preparedness for similar disease outbreaks. By doing so, lessons learnt from the SBV epidemic will also improve surveillance for other emerging diseases in cattle
    corecore