17 research outputs found

    Epidemiological trends in nosocomial candidemia in intensive care

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    BACKGROUND: Infection represents a frequent complication among patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and mortality is high. In particular, the incidence of fungal infections, especially due to Candida spp., has been increasing during the last years. METHODS: In a retrospective study we studied the etiology of candidemia in critically ill patients over a five-year period (1999–2003) in the ICU of the San Martino University Hospital in Genoa, Italy. RESULTS: In total, 182 episodes of candidaemia were identified, with an average incidence of 2.22 episodes/10 000 patient-days/year (range 1.25–3.06 episodes). Incidence of candidemia increased during the study period from 1.25 in 1999 to 3.06/10 000 patient-days/year in 2003. Overall, 40% of the fungemia episodes (74/182) were due to C.albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis(23%), C.glabrata (15%), C.tropicalis (9%) and other species (13%). Candidemia due to non-albicans species increased and this was apparently correlated with an increasing use of azoles for prophylaxis or empirical treatment. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a shift in the species of Candida causing fungemia in a medical and surgical ICU population during a 5 year period. The knowledge of the local epidemiological trends in Candida species isolated in blood cultures is important to guide therapeutic choices

    Examination of potential virulence factors of Candida tropicalis clinical isolates from hospitalized patients

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    Candida tropicalis has been reported to be one of the Candida species which is most likely to cause bloodstream and urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the virulence of C. tropicalis by assessing antifungal susceptibility and comparing the expression of several virulence factors. This study was conducted with seven isolates of C. tropicalis from urine and blood cultures and from central venous catheter. C. tropicalis ATCC 750 was used as reference strain. Yeasts adhered (2 h) to epithelial cells and silicone and 24 h biofilm biomass were determined by crystal violet staining. Pseudohyphae formation ability was determined after growth in fetal bovine serum. Enzymes production (hemolysins, proteases, phospholipases) was assessed by halo formation on agar plates. Susceptibility to antifungal agents was determined by E-test. Regarding adhesion, it can be highlighted that C. tropicalis strains adhered significantly more to epithelium than to silicone. Furthermore, all C. tropicalis strains were able to form biofilms and to express total hemolytic activity. However, protease was only produced by two isolates from urine and by the isolates from catheter and blood. Moreover, only one C. tropicalis (from catheter) was phospholipase positive. All isolates were susceptible to voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B. Four strains were susceptible-dose dependent to itraconazole and one clinical isolate was found to be resistant

    Th1-Th17 Cells Mediate Protective Adaptive Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans Infection in Mice

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    We sought to define protective mechanisms of immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans bloodstream infections in mice immunized with the recombinant N-terminus of Als3p (rAls3p-N) vaccine plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH3) adjuvant, or adjuvant controls. Deficiency of IFN-γ but not IL-17A enhanced susceptibility of control mice to both infections. However, vaccine-induced protective immunity against both infections required CD4+ T-cell-derived IFN-γ and IL-17A, and functional phagocytic effectors. Vaccination primed Th1, Th17, and Th1/17 lymphocytes, which produced pro-inflammatory cytokines that enhanced phagocytic killing of both organisms. Vaccinated, infected mice had increased IFN-γ, IL-17, and KC, increased neutrophil influx, and decreased organism burden in tissues. In summary, rAls3p-N vaccination induced a Th1/Th17 response, resulting in recruitment and activation of phagocytes at sites of infection, and more effective clearance of S. aureus and C. albicans from tissues. Thus, vaccine-mediated adaptive immunity can protect against both infections by targeting microbes for destruction by innate effectors