1,807 research outputs found

    Problem Frame Analysis of Weapon System of Systems Requirement

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    AbstractThe requirement of weapon system of systems(WSoS) plays a very important role in the development of WSoS,which is the basis of the design of WSoS and runs through the research of WSoS. Based on the requirement engineering method of problem frame, the problem frame of WSoS requirement(WSoSR) is built which is consisted of requirement, mission domain, task domain, operation domain and system of systems(SoS) domain. The phenomena between the domains is defined and the constraint set is given. The model of the WSoSR problem transformation is put forward including the transformation process and the transformation content. An example of combined firing employment to the enemy ship fleet is shown in the end

    Filament L1482 in the California molecular cloud

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    Aims. The process of gravitational fragmentation in the L1482 molecular filament of the California molecular cloud is studied by combining several complementary observations and physical estimates. We investigate the kinematic and dynamical states of this molecular filament and physical properties of several dozens of dense molecular clumps embedded therein. Methods. We present and compare molecular line emission observations of the J=2--1 and J=3--2 transitions of 12CO in this molecular complex, using the KOSMA 3-meter telescope. These observations are complemented with archival data observations and analyses of the 13CO J=1--0 emission obtained at the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7-meter radio telescope at Delingha Station in QingHai Province of west China, as well as infrared emission maps from the Herschel Space Telescope online archive, obtained with the SPIRE and PACS cameras. Comparison of these complementary datasets allow for a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis of the L1482 molecular filament. Results. We have identified 23 clumps along the molecular filament L1482 in the California molecular cloud. All these molecular clumps show supersonic non-thermal gas motions. While surprisingly similar in mass and size to the much better known Orion molecular cloud, the formation rate of high-mass stars appears to be suppressed in the California molecular cloud relative to that in the Orion molecular cloud based on the mass-radius threshold derived from the static Bonnor Ebert sphere. Our analysis suggests that these molecular filaments are thermally supercritical and molecular clumps may form by gravitational fragmentation along the filament. Instead of being static, these molecular clumps are most likely in processes of dynamic evolution.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables, accepted to Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Eficácia da intervenção de enfermagem para aumento da esperança em pacientes com câncer: uma meta-análise

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    Objetivo: meta-análise para avaliar a eficácia da intervenção de enfermagem, no nível de esperança para pacientes com câncer. Método: foram pesquisados bancos de dados eletrônicos. Dois dos autores, de forma independente, extraíram os dados dos estudos elegíveis e os agruparam no software Stata 13.0. Resultado: nove ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos e a qualidade metodológica destes estudos foi avaliada utilizando as recomendações do manual Cochrane. Um modelo de efeito aleatório foi usado para combinar resultados dos estudos elencados. O agrupamento dos resultados por meio de um modelo de efeitos fixos mostrou primeiros escores revelaram um efeito significativamente maior após o uso da intervenção de enfermagem entre os grupos. Foi identificada heterogeneidade entre os estudos para pós-teste (df = 8, p = 0.000; I2 =76.1 %). Os resultados indicaram heterogeneidade significativa nos nove estudos selecionados. O teste para heterogeneidade não demonstrou homogeneidade entre os estudos de acompanhamento (df = 8, p = 0.328; I2 = 12.9 %), mas sem significância estatística. Conclusão: as evidências atuais sugerem que a intervenção de enfermagem tem um efeito positivo no sentimento de esperança em pacientes com câncer. No entanto, são necessários mais ensaios controlados randomizados em maior escala e de alta qualidade para confirmar esses resultados.Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de la intervención de enfermería para pacientes oncológicos en el nivel de esperanza en un meta análisis. Método: se buscó información en bases de datos electrónicas. Dos de los autores extrajeron de forma independiente los datos de los estudios de elegibilidad, y se utilizó el software Stata 13.0 para agrupar los datos. Resultados: se incluyeron nueve ensayos aleatorios controlados y se evaluó la calidad metodológica del ensayo controlado aleatorizado (ECA) utilizando las recomendaciones del manual Cochrane. Se utilizó un modelo de efectos aleatorios para combinar los resultados de los estudios elegibles. Los resultados agrupados utilizando el modelo de efectos fijos mostraron que las puntuaciones al primer efecto aumentan significativamente después del uso de la intervención de enfermería entre los grupos. Se observó heterogeneidad entre los estudios de post-prueba (df = 8, P = 0.000; I2 =76.1 %). Los resultados indicaron heterogeneidad significativa en los nueve estudios seleccionados. La prueba de heterogeneidad no mostró homogeneidad entre los estudios de seguimiento (df = 8, P = 0.328; I2 = 12.9 %), pero no hay significación estadística. Conclusión: la evidencia actual sugiere que la intervención de enfermería tiene un efecto positivo en la esperanza en pacientes con cáncer. Sin embargo, se necesitan más ensayos controlados aleatorios de gran escala y de alta calidad para confirmar estos resultados.Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of nursing interventions to increase the level of hope in cancer patients, in a meta-analysis. Methods: electronic databases were searched. Two of the authors independently extracted data from the eligible studies, and Stata 13.0 software was used to pool the data. Results: nine randomized controlled trials were included, and methodological quality of each randomized controlled trial (RCT) was evaluated using Cochrane handbook recommendations. A random effects model was used to combine results from eligible studies. The pooled results using the fixed effects model showed that scores to first effects increase significantly after the use of nursing intervention between the groups. Heterogeneity was observed among the studies for posttest (df = 8, P = 0.000; I2 =76.1 %). The results indicated significant heterogeneity across the nine selected studies. The test for heterogeneity showed no homogeneity among studies for follow-up (df = 8, P = 0.328; I2 = 12.9 %), and there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: the current evidence suggests that nursing intervention has a positive effect on hope in cancer patients. However, more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results

    Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba

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    The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100 μg/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both α-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24 μg/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of α-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5 h (P<0.05) and 1.0 h (P<0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P<0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40 mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel α-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy

    Diversity of the genus Cryobacterium and proposal of 19 novel species isolated from glaciers

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    The bacterial genus Cryobacterium includes at present 14 species that live in cryospheric environments. In this study, we analyzed 101 genomes of Cryobacterium with pure cultures obtained from GenBank. They could be classified into 44 species based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis, showing the diversity of Cryobacterium. Among these, 19 strains in our laboratory were isolated from the glacier samples in China. The pairwise ANI values of these 19 strains and known species were &lt;95%, indicating that they represented 19 novel species. The comparative genomic analysis showed significant differences in gene content between the two groups with a maximum growth temperature (Tmax) of ≤ 20°C and a Tmax of &gt;20°C. A comprehensive and robust phylogenetic tree, including 14 known species and 19 novel species, was constructed and showed five phylogenetic branches based on 265 concatenated single-copy gene sequences. The Tmax parameter had a strong phylogenetic signal, indicating that the temperature adaptation of Cryobacterium was largely through vertical transfer rather than horizontal gene transfer and was affected by selection. Furthermore, using polyphasic taxonomy combined with phylogenomic analysis, we proposed 19 novel species of the genus Cryobacterium by the following 19 names: Cryobacterium serini sp. nov., Cryobacterium lactosi sp. nov., Cryobacterium gelidum sp. nov., Cryobacterium suzukii sp. nov., Cryobacterium fucosi sp. nov., Cryobacterium frigoriphilum sp. nov., Cryobacterium cryoconiti sp. nov., Cryobacterium lyxosi sp. nov., Cryobacterium sinapicolor sp. nov., Cryobacterium sandaracinum sp. nov., Cryobacterium cheniae sp. nov., Cryobacterium shii sp. nov., Cryobacterium glucosi sp. nov., Cryobacterium algoritolerans sp. nov., Cryobacterium mannosilyticum sp. nov., Cryobacterium adonitolivorans sp. nov., Cryobacterium algoricola sp. nov., Cryobacterium tagatosivorans sp. nov., and Cryobacterium glaciale sp. nov. Overall, the taxonomy and genomic analysis can improve our knowledge of phenotypic diversity, genetic diversity, and evolutionary characteristics of Cryobacterium

    Metal oxide semiconductor nanomembrane-based soft unnoticeable multifunctional electronics for wearable human-machine interfaces

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    Wearable human-machine interfaces (HMIs) are an important class of devices that enable human and machine interaction and teaming. Recent advances in electronics, materials, and mechanical designs have offered avenues toward wearable HMI devices. However, existing wearable HMI devices are uncomfortable to use and restrict the human body&apos;s motion, show slow response times, or are challenging to realize with multiple functions. Here, we report sol-gel-on-polymer-processed indium zinc oxide semiconductor nanomembrane-based ultrathin stretchable electronics with advantages of multifunctionality, simple manufacturing, imperceptible wearing, and robust interfacing. Multifunctional wearable HMI devices range from resistive random-access memory for data storage to field-effect transistors for interfacing and switching circuits, to various sensors for health and body motion sensing, and to microheaters for temperature delivery. The HMI devices can be not only seamlessly worn by humans but also implemented as prosthetic skin for robotics, which offer intelligent feedback, resulting in a closed-loop HMI system
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