9,230 research outputs found

    Moroni L. Jensen to Muriel Humphrey and Family, 16 January 1978

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    Typed letter signed dated 16 January 1978 from Moroni L. Jensen, President of Utah State Senate, to Muriel Humphrey and Family, re: tribute to Humphrey. Attached: copy Utah State Senate Journal (16 January 1978), re: above topic. Attached: broadside, re: Utah State Legislature Resolution giving tribute to Hubert Humphrey.https://egrove.olemiss.edu/joecorr_e/1001/thumbnail.jp

    Astrophysical implications of the proton-proton cross section updates

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    The p(p,e^+ \nu_e)^2H reaction rate is an essential ingredient for theoretical computations of stellar models. In the past several values of the corresponding S-factor have been made available by different authors. Prompted by a recent evaluation of S(E), we analysed the effect of the adoption of different proton-proton reaction rates on stellar models, focusing, in particular, on the age of mid and old stellar clusters (1-12 Gyr) and on standard solar model predictions. By comparing different widely adopted p(p,e^+ \nu_e)^2H reaction rates, we found a maximum difference in the temperature regimes typical of main sequence hydrogen-burning stars (5x10^6 - 3x10^7 K) of about 3%. Such a variation translates into a change of cluster age determination lower than 1%. A slightly larger effect is observed in the predicted solar neutrino fluxes with a maximum difference, in the worst case, of about 8%. Finally we also notice that the uncertainty evaluation of the present proton-proton rate is at the level of few \permil, thus the p(p,e^+ \nu_e)^2H reaction rate does not constitute anymore a significant uncertainty source in stellar models.Comment: accepte

    Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

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    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), electrospinning (ESP) and a biomimetic coating method in order to provide mechanical support and a physico-chemical environment mimicking both the organic and inorganic phases of bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(buthylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer was used to produce three dimensional scaffolds by combining 3D fiber (3DF) deposition, and ESP, and these constructs were then coated with a Ca-P layer in a simulated physiological solution. Scaffold morphology and composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on coated and uncoated 3DF and 3DF + ESP scaffolds for up to 21 d in basic and mineralization medium and cell attachment, proliferation, and expression of genes related to osteogenesis were assessed. Cells attached, proliferated and secreted ECM on all the scaffolds. There were no significant differences in metabolic activity among the different groups on days 7 and 21. Coated 3DF scaffolds showed a significantly higher DNA amount in basic medium at 21 d compared with the coated 3DF + ESP scaffolds, whereas in mineralization medium, the presence of coating in 3DF+ESP scaffolds led to a significant decrease in the amount of DNA. An effect of combining different scaffolding technologies and material types on expression of a number of osteogenic markers (cbfa1, BMP-2, OP, OC and ON) was observed, suggesting the potential use of this approach in bone tissue engineerin

    Controlled surface initiated polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide from polycaprolactone substrates for regulating cell attachment and detachment

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    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) substrates were modified with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes to direct and control cellular attachment and detachment. Prior to brush growth, the surface of PCL was activated by a diamine to allow for initiator coupling. Infrared spectra taken before and after cell culturing demonstrated the covalently attached nature of the PNIPAM brushes. PCL is a biocompatible polymer and to prove that the modifications described above did not change this characteristic property, a cell attachment/detachment study was carried out. The modified substrates showed a lower cell attachment when compared to PCL alone and to PCL films modified with the initiator. The possibility to detach the cells in the form of a sheet was proved using PNIPAM-modified PCL films by lowering the temperature to 25 °C. No relevant detachment was shown by the unmodified or by the initiator modified surfaces. This confirmed that the detachment was temperature dependent and not connected to other factors such as polymer swelling. These functionalized polymeric films can find applications as smart cell culture systems in regenerative medicine applications

    Biomimetic spatial and temporal (4D) design and fabrication

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    We imagine the built environment of the future as a ‘bio-hybrid machine for living in’ that will sense and react to activities within the space in order to provide experiences and services that will elevate quality of life while coexisting seamlessly with humans and the natural environment. The study of Hierarchical design in biological materials has the potential to alter the way designers/ engineers/ crafts-men of the future engage with materials in order to realise such visions. We are ex-ploring this design approach using digital manufacturing technologies such as jac-quard weaving and 3D printing

    Effect of proton irradiation on the normal state low-energy excitations of Ba(Fe1x_{1-x}Rhx_x)2_2As2_2 superconductors

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    We present a \asnmr Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and resistivity study of the effect of 5.5 MeV proton irradiation on the optimal electron doped (x=x= 0.068) and overdoped (x=x= 0.107) Ba(Fe1x_{1-x}Rhx_x)2_2As2_2 iron based superconductors. While the proton induced defects only mildly suppress the critical temperature and increase residual resistivity in both compositions, sizable broadening of the NMR spectra was observed in all the irradiated samples at low temperature. The effect is significantly stronger in the optimally doped sample where the Curie Weiss temperature dependence of the line width suggests the onset of ferromagnetic correlations coexisting with superconductivity at the nanoscale. 1/T2_2 measurements revealed that the energy barrier characterizing the low energy spin fluctuations of these compounds is enhanced upon proton irradiation, suggesting that the defects are likely slowing down the fluctuations between (0,π)0,\pi) and (π\pi,0) nematic ground states.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figure

    modeling the influence of stress triaxiality on the failure strain of nodular cast iron microstructures

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    Abstract In this study the fracture behavior of different cast iron microstructures subjected to tensile loading under different triaxialities is simulated by a finite element, 3-D Reference Volume Element approach. Three ferritic/pearlitic heterogeneous matrixes are considered which are representative of the class material grades for strength and ductility. Isotropic ductile and shear damage models are considered for the matrix constituents as concurrent damage mechanisms at the microscale, while graphite nodules are considered as voids acting as stress concentrators. Numerical results confirm experimental findings about local strain distribution and damage accumulation, and reproduce the engineering macroscopic behavior. The stress triaxiality is found to play a strong effect on the failure strain, extending the potentialities of this RVE modeling approach

    Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, streptococcus canis

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    Background - Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results - Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion - This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus urinalis) is cause for concern, as it highlights the possibility for continued acquisition of human virulence factors for this emerging zoonotic pathogen

    Regenerative therapies for tympanic membrane

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    It is estimated that by 2050 one in every ten people will be suffering from disabling hearing loss. Perforated tympanic membranes (TMs) are the most common injury to the human ear, resulting in a partial or complete hearing loss due to inept sound conduction. Commonly known as the eardrum, the TM is a thin, concave tissue of the middle ear that captures sound pressure waves from the environment and transmits them as mechanical vibrations to the inner ear. Microsurgical placement of autologous tissue graft has been the “gold standard” for treating damaged TMs; however, the incongruent structural and mechanical properties of these autografts often impair an optimal hearing restoration following recovery. Moreover, given the lack of available tissues for transplantations, regenerative medicine has emerged as a promising alternative. Several tissue engineered approaches applying bio-instructive scaffolds and stimuli have been reported for the TM regeneration, which can be broadly classified into TM repair and TM reconstruction. This review evaluates the current advantages and challenges of both strategies with a special focus on the use of recent biofabrication technologies for advancing TM tissue engineering
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