8,386 research outputs found

    Transform-Limited-Pulse Representation of Excitation with Natural Incoherent Light

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    We study the natural excitation of molecular systems, applicable to, for example, photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, by natural incoherent light. In contrast with the conventional classical models, we show that the light need not have random character to properly represent the resultant linear excitation. Rather, thermal excitation can be interpreted as a collection of individual events resulting from the system's interaction with individual, deterministic pulsed realizations that constitute the field. The derived expressions for the individual field realizations and excitation events allow for a wave function formalism, and therefore constitute a useful calculational tool to study dynamics following thermal-light excitation. Further, they provide a route to the experimental determination of natural incoherent excitation using pulsed laser techniques.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, 1 page supplementary information. Comments welcom

    Nonclassical and nonlocal effects in the interference of light

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    Although we tend to think of optical interference as a classical wave phenomenon, recent experiments have revealed a number of effects that are not describable in classical terms. This is particularly true of interference effects involving the detection of a photon pair. We shall refer to them as fourth order interference, on the grounds that the joint probability density for the detection of one photon at r sub 1 at time t and another r sub 2 at time t is proportional to the fourth order correlation function of the field. This probability is readily measured when two photodetectors are positioned at r sub 1 and r sub 2 and the signals from the two detectors are fed to a coincidence counter that registers 'simultaneous' detections by the two detectors in coincidence. The topics covered include: fourth order interference measurements; the Franson experiment; and experimental test of the de Broglie guided wave theory

    Interference and the lossless lossy beam splitter

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    By directing the input light into a particular mode it is possible to obtain as output all of the input light for a beam splitter that is 50% absorbing. This effect is also responsible for nonlinear quantum interference when two photons are incident on the beam splitter.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, to appear in J. Mod. Op

    Interference fringes with maximal contrast at finite coherence time

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    Interference fringes can result from the measurement of four-time fourth-order correlation functions of a wave field. These fringes have a statistical origin and, as a consequence, they show the greatest contrast when the coherence time of the field is finite. A simple acoustic experiment is presented in which these fringes are observed, and it is demonstrated that the contrast is maximal for partial coherence. Random telegraph phase noise is used to vary the field coherence in order to highlight the problem of interpreting this interference; for this noise, the Gaussian moment theorem may not be invoked to reduce the description of the interference to one in terms of first-order interference.M.W. Hamilto

    From Monomials to Words to graphs

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    Given a finite alphabet X and an ordering on the letters, the map \sigma sends each monomial on X to the word that is the ordered product of the letter powers in the monomial. Motivated by a question on Groebner bases, we characterize ideals I in the free commutative monoid (in terms of a generating set) such that the ideal generated by \sigma(I) in the free monoid is finitely generated. Whether there exists an ordering such that is finitely generated turns out to be NP-complete. The latter problem is closely related to the recognition problem for comparability graphs.Comment: 27 pages, 2 postscript figures, uses gastex.st

    Hierarchical analysis of gravitational-wave measurements of binary black hole spin-orbit misalignments

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    Binary black holes may form both through isolated binary evolution and through dynamical interactions in dense stellar environments. The formation channel leaves an imprint on the alignment between the black hole spins and the orbital angular momentum. Gravitational waves from these systems directly encode information about the spin--orbit misalignment angles, allowing them to be (weakly) constrained. Identifying sub-populations of spinning binary black holes will inform us about compact binary formation and evolution. We simulate a mixed population of binary black holes with spin--orbit misalignments modelled under a range of assumptions. We then develop a hierarchical analysis and apply it to mock gravitational-wave observations of these populations. Assuming a population with dimensionless spin magnitudes of χ=0.7\chi = 0.7, we show that tens of observations will make it possible to distinguish the presence of subpopulations of coalescing binary black holes based on their spin orientations. With 100100 observations it will be possible to infer the relative fraction of coalescing binary black holes with isotropic spin directions (corresponding to dynamical formation in our models) with a fractional uncertainty of ∼40%\sim 40\%. Meanwhile, only ∼5\sim 5 observations are sufficient to distinguish between extreme models---all binary black holes either having exactly aligned spins or isotropic spin directions.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures. Updated to match version published in MNRAS as 10.1093/mnras/stx176

    Quantum Bayesian methods and subsequent measurements

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    After a derivation of the quantum Bayes theorem, and a discussion of the reconstruction of the unknown state of identical spin systems by repeated measurements, the main part of this paper treats the problem of determining the unknown phase difference of two coherent sources by photon measurements. While the approach of this paper is based on computing correlations of actual measurements (photon detections), it is possible to derive indirectly a probability distribution for the phase difference. In this approach, the quantum phase is not an observable, but a parameter of an unknown quantum state. Photon measurements determine a probability distribution for the phase difference. The approach used in this paper takes into account both photon statistics and the finite efficiency of the detectors.Comment: Expanded and corrected version. 13 pages, 1 figur

    Verifying the no-hair property of massive compact objects with intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals in advanced gravitational-wave detectors

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    The detection of gravitational waves from the inspiral of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole into an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) promises an entirely new look at strong-field gravitational physics. Gravitational waves from these intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs), systems with mass ratios from ~10:1 to ~100:1, may be detectable at rates of up to a few tens per year by Advanced LIGO/Virgo and will encode a signature of the central body's spacetime. Direct observation of the spacetime will allow us to use the "no-hair" theorem of general relativity to determine if the IMBH is a Kerr black hole (or some more exotic object, e.g. a boson star). Using modified post-Newtonian (pN) waveforms, we explore the prospects for constraining the central body's mass-quadrupole moment in the advanced-detector era. We use the Fisher information matrix to estimate the accuracy with which the parameters of the central body can be measured. We find that for favorable mass and spin combinations, the quadrupole moment of a non-Kerr central body can be measured to within a ~15% fractional error or better using 3.5 pN order waveforms; on the other hand, we find the accuracy decreases to ~100% fractional error using 2 pN waveforms, except for a narrow band of values of the best-fit non-Kerr quadrupole moment.Comment: Second version, 12 pages, 5 figures, accepted by PR

    Quantum cryptographic ranging

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    We present a system to measure the distance between two parties that allows only trusted people to access the result. The security of the protocol is guaranteed by the complementarity principle in quantum mechanics. The protocol can be realized with available technology, at least as a proof of principle experiment.Comment: 2 pages, 1 figure. Contribution to the proceedings of the IV edition of the Garda Lake Workshop "Mysteries, Puzzles and Paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics
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