704 research outputs found

    Diverging equilibration times in long-range quantum spin models

    Full text link
    The approach to equilibrium is studied for long-range quantum Ising models where the interaction strength decays like r^{-\alpha} at large distances r with an exponent őĪ\alpha not exceeding the lattice dimension. For a large class of observables and initial states, the time evolution of expectation values can be calculated. We prove analytically that, at a given instant of time t and for sufficiently large system size N, the expectation value of some observable (t) will practically be unchanged from its initial value (0). This finding implies that, for large enough N, equilibration effectively occurs on a time scale beyond the experimentally accessible one and will not be observed in practice.Comment: 4+ pages, 1 figur

    Limits of the equivalence of time and ensemble averages in shear flows

    Full text link
    In equilibrium systems, time and ensemble averages of physical quantities are equivalent due to ergodic exploration of phase space. In driven systems, it is unknown if a similar equivalence of time and ensemble averages exists. We explore effective limits of such convergence in a sheared bubble raft using averages of the bubble velocities. In independent experiments, averaging over time leads to well converged velocity profiles. However, the time-averages from independent experiments result in distinct velocity averages. Ensemble averages are approximated by randomly selecting bubble velocities from independent experiments. Increasingly better approximations of ensemble averages converge toward a unique velocity profile. Therefore, the experiments establish that in practical realizations of non-equilibrium systems, temporal averaging and ensemble averaging can yield convergent (stationary) but distinct distributions.Comment: accepted to PRL - final figure revision

    Scaled Particle Theory for Hard Sphere Pairs. I. Mathematical Structure

    Full text link
    We develop an extension of the original Reiss-Frisch-Lebowitz scaled particle theory that can serve as a predictive method for the hard sphere pair correlation function g(r). The reversible cavity creation work is analyzed both for a single spherical cavity of arbitrary size, as well as for a pair of identical such spherical cavities with variable center-to-center separation. These quantities lead directly to prediction of g(r). Smooth connection conditions have been identified between the small-cavity situation where the work can be exactly and completely expressed in terms of g(r), and the large-cavity regime where macroscopic properties become relevant. Closure conditions emerge which produce a nonlinear integral equation that must be satisfied by the pair correlation function. This integral equation has a structure which straightforwardly generates a solution that is a power series in density. The results of this series replicate the exact second and third virial coefficients for the hard sphere system via the contact value of the pair correlation function. The predicted fourth virial coefficient is approximately 0.6 percent lower than the known exact value. Detailed numerical analysis of the nonlinear integral equation has been deferred to the sequel (following paper

    Verschraenkung versus Stosszahlansatz: Disappearance of the Thermodynamic Arrow in a High-Correlation Environment

    Full text link
    The crucial role of ambient correlations in determining thermodynamic behavior is established. A class of entangled states of two macroscopic systems is constructed such that each component is in a state of thermal equilibrium at a given temperature, and when the two are allowed to interact heat can flow from the colder to the hotter system. A dilute gas model exhibiting this behavior is presented. This reversal of the thermodynamic arrow is a consequence of the entanglement between the two systems, a condition that is opposite to molecular chaos and shown to be unlikely in a low-entropy environment. By contrast, the second law is established by proving Clausius' inequality in a low-entropy environment. These general results strongly support the expectation, first expressed by Boltzmann and subsequently elaborated by others, that the second law is an emergent phenomenon that requires a low-entropy cosmological environment, one that can effectively function as an ideal information sink.Comment: 4 pages, REVTeX

    Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    Get PDF
    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional (1D) interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly-interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian (the exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared). In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo decays faster for larger interparticle interactions (nonlinearity), and it shows richer behavior than the TG Loschmidt echo dynamics, with oscillations superimposed on the overall decay.Comment: Comparison between Tonks-Girardeau and mean-field fidelities corrected; see new Figure 4 and the "Note added". New references are include

    On the relation between virial coefficients and the close-packing of hard disks and hard spheres

    Full text link
    The question of whether the known virial coefficients are enough to determine the packing fraction ő∑‚ąě\eta_\infty at which the fluid equation of state of a hard-sphere fluid diverges is addressed. It is found that the information derived from the direct Pad\'e approximants to the compressibility factor constructed with the virial coefficients is inconclusive. An alternative approach is proposed which makes use of the same virial coefficients and of the equation of state in a form where the packing fraction is explicitly given as a function of the pressure. The results of this approach both for hard-disk and hard-sphere fluids, which can straightforwardly accommodate higher virial coefficients when available, lends support to the conjecture that ő∑‚ąě\eta_\infty is equal to the maximum packing fraction corresponding to an ordered crystalline structure.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures; v2: discussion about hard-square and hard-hexagon systems on a lattice added; five new reference

    Some Late-time Asymptotics of General Scalar-Tensor Cosmologies

    Full text link
    We study the asymptotic behaviour of isotropic and homogeneous universes in general scalar-tensor gravity theories containing a p=-rho vacuum fluid stress and other sub-dominant matter stresses. It is shown that in order for there to be approach to a de Sitter spacetime at large 4-volumes the coupling function, omega(phi), which defines the scalar-tensor theory, must diverge faster than |phi_infty-phi|^(-1+epsilon) for all epsilon>0 as phi rightarrow phi_infty 0 for large values of the time. Thus, for a given theory, specified by omega(phi), there must exist some phi_infty in (0,infty) such that omega -> infty and omega' / omega^(2+epsilon) -> 0 as phi -> 0 phi_infty in order for cosmological solutions of the theory to approach de Sitter expansion at late times. We also classify the possible asymptotic time variations of the gravitation `constant' G(t) at late times in scalar-tensor theories. We show that (unlike in general relativity) the problem of a profusion of ``Boltzmann brains'' at late cosmological times can be avoided in scalar-tensor theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, in which phi -> infty and omega ~ o(\phi^(1/2)) at asymptotically late times.Comment: 14 page

    A branch-point approximant for the equation of state of hard spheres

    Full text link
    Using the first seven known virial coefficients and forcing it to possess two branch-point singularities, a new equation of state for the hard-sphere fluid is proposed. This equation of state predicts accurate values of the higher virial coefficients, a radius of convergence smaller than the close-packing value, and it is as accurate as the rescaled virial expansion and better than the Pad\'e [3/3] equations of state. Consequences regarding the convergence properties of the virial series and the use of similar equations of state for hard-core fluids in dd dimensions are also pointed out.Comment: 6 pages, 4 tables, 3 figures; v2: enlarged version, extension to other dimensionalities; v3: typos in references correcte

    Time and irreversibility in an accelerating universe

    Get PDF
    It is a remarkable fact that all processes occurring in the observable Universe are irreversible, whereas the equations through which the fundamental laws of physics are formulated are invariant under time reversal. The emergence of irreversibility from the fundamental laws has been a topic of consideration by physicists, astronomers and philosophers since Boltzmann's formulation of his famous "H" theorem. In this paper we shall discuss some aspects of this problem and its connection with the dynamics of space-time, within the framework of modern cosmology. We conclude that the existence of cosmological horizons allows a coupling of the global state of the Universe with the local events determined through electromagnetic processes.Comment: 8 pages, revised version accepted for publication in IJMP D. This paper received an Honorable Mention in the Gravity Research Foundation competition 201

    Individual and collective behavior of dust particles in a protoplanetary nebula

    Full text link
    We study the interaction between gas and dust particles in a protoplanetary disk, comparing analytical and numerical results. We first calculate analytically the trajectories of individual particles undergoing gas drag in the disk, in the asymptotic cases of very small particles (Epstein regime) and very large particles (Stokes regime). Using a Boltzmann averaging method, we then infer their collective behavior. We compare the results of this analytical formulation against numerical computations of a large number of particles. Using successive moments of the Boltzmann equation, we derive the equivalent fluid equations for the average motion of the particles; these are intrinsically different in the Epstein and Stokes regimes. We are also able to study analytically the temporal evolution of a collection of particles with a given initial size-distribution provided collisions are ignored.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figures, submitted to Ap
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore