24,119,203 research outputs found

    Anisotropy probe of galactic and extra-galactic Dark Matter annihilations

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    We study the flux and the angular power spectrum of gamma-rays produced by Dark Matter (DM) annihilations in the Milky Way (MW) and in extra-galactic halos. The annihilation signal receives contributions from: a) the smooth MW halo, b) resolved and unresolved substructures in the MW, c) external DM halos at all redshifts, including d) their substructures. Adopting a self-consistent description of local and extra-galactic substructures, we show that the annihilation flux from substructures in the MW dominates over all the other components for angles larger than O(1) degrees from the Galactic Center, unless an extreme prescription is adopted for the substructures concentration. We also compute the angular power spectrum of gamma-ray anisotropies and find that, for an optimistic choice of the particle physics parameters, an interesting signature of DM annihilations could soon be discovered by the Fermi LAT satellite at low multipoles, l<100, where the dominant contribution comes from MW substructures with mass M>10^4 solar masses. For the substructures models we have adopted, we find that the contribution of extra-galactic annihilations is instead negligible at all scales.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

    First narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves from known pulsars in advanced detector data

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    Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signalto- noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, narrow-band analysis methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of 11 pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO’s first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched; in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far

    Lyman Alpha Emitter Evolution in the Reionization Epoch

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    Combining cosmological SPH simulations with a previously developed Lyman Alpha production/transmission model and the Early Reionization Model (ERM, reionization ends at redshift z~7), we obtain Lyman Alpha and UV Luminosity Functions (LFs) for Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) for redshifts between 5.7 and 7.6. Matching model results to observations at z~5.7 requires escape fractions of Lyman Alpha, f_alpha=0.3, and UV (non-ionizing) continuum photons, f_c=0.22, corresponding to a color excess, E(B-V)=0.15. We find that (i) f_c increases towards higher redshifts, due the decreasing mean dust content of galaxies, (ii) the evolution of f_alpha/f_c hints at the dust content of the ISM becoming progressively inhomogeneous/clumped with decreasing redshift. The clustering photoionization boost is important during the initial reionization phases but has little effect on the Lyman Alpha LF for a highly ionized IGM. Halo (stellar) masses are in the range 10.0 < \log M_h < 11.8 (8.1 < \log M_* < 10.4) with M_h \propto M_*^{0.64}. The star formation rates are between 3-120 solar masses per year, mass-weighted mean ages are greater than 20 Myr at all redshifts, while the mean stellar metallicity increases from Z=0.12 to 0.22 solar metallicity from z~7.6 to z~5.7; both age and metallicity positively correlate with stellar mass. The brightest LAEs are all characterized by large star formation rates and intermediate ages (~200 Myr), while objects in the faint end of the Lyman Alpha LF show large age and star formation rate spreads. With no more free parameters, the Spectral Energy Distributions of three LAE at z~5.7 observed by Lai et al. (2007) are well reproduced by an intermediate age (182-220 Myr) stellar population and the above E(B-V) value.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, accepted to MNRA

    Proton spectra from Non-Mesonic Weak Decay of p-shell Lambda-Hypernuclei and evidence for the two-nucleon induced process

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    New spectra from the FINUDA experiment of the Non Mesonic Weak Decay (NMWD) proton kinetic energy for 9(Lambda)Be, 11(Lambda)B, 12(Lambda)C, 13(Lambda)C, 15 (Lambda)N and 16(Lambda)O are presented and discussed along with the published data on 5(Lambda)He and 7(Lambda)Li. Exploiting the large mass number range and the low energy threshold (15 MeV) for the proton detection of FINUDA, an evaluation of both Final State Interactions (FSI) and the two nucleon induced NMWD contributions to the decay process has been done. Based on this evaluation, a linear dependence of FSI on the hypernuclear mass number A is found and for the two nucleon stimulated decay rate the experimental value of Gamma2/Gammap=0.43+-0.25 is determined for the first time. A value for the two nucleon stimulated decay rate to the total decay rate Gamma2/GammaNMWD=0.24+-0.10 is also extracted.Comment: 11 pages and 2 figure

    Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino cross section with IceCube using Earth absorption

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    Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. However, the theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross section rises with energy such that, at energies above 40 TeV, neutrinos are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross section has been measured only at the relatively low energies (below 400 GeV) available at neutrino beams from accelerators \cite{Agashe:2014kda, Formaggio:2013kya}. Here we report the first measurement of neutrino absorption in the Earth, using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons observed with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories through the Earth. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the cross section for neutrino energies between 6.3 TeV and 980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher in energy than previous measurements. The measured cross section is 1.30‚ąí0.19+0.211.30^{+0.21}_{-0.19} (stat.) ‚ąí0.43+0.39^{+0.39}_{-0.43} (syst.) times the prediction of the Standard Model \cite{CooperSarkar:2011pa}, consistent with the expectation for charged and neutral current interactions. We do not observe a dramatic increase in the cross section, expected in some speculative models, including those invoking new compact dimensions \cite{AlvarezMuniz:2002ga} or the production of leptoquarks \cite{Romero:2009vu}.Comment: Preprint version of Nature paper 10.1038/nature2445

    Non-existence of Ramanujan congruences in modular forms of level four

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    Ramanujan famously found congruences for the partition function like p(5n+4) = 0 modulo 5. We provide a method to find all simple congruences of this type in the coefficients of the inverse of a modular form on Gamma_{1}(4) which is non-vanishing on the upper half plane. This is applied to answer open questions about the (non)-existence of congruences in the generating functions for overpartitions, crank differences, and 2-colored F-partitions.Comment: 19 page

    Diluted one-dimensional spin glasses with power law decaying interactions

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    We introduce a diluted version of the one dimensional spin-glass model with interactions decaying in probability as an inverse power of the distance. In this model varying the power corresponds to change the dimension in short-range models. The spin-glass phase is studied in and out of the range of validity of the mean-field approximation in order to discriminate between different theories. Since each variable interacts only with a finite number of others the cost for simulating the model is drastically reduced with respect to the fully connected version and larger sizes can be studied. We find both static and dynamic evidence in favor of the so-called replica symmetry breaking theory.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures, 2 table

    The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS

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    Lobster-ISS is an X-ray all-sky monitor experiment selected by ESA two years ago for a Phase A study (now almost completed) for a future flight (2009) aboard the Columbus Exposed Payload Facility of the International Space Station. The main instrument, based on MCP optics with Lobster-eye geometry, has an energy passband from 0.1 to 3.5 keV, an unprecedented daily sensitivity of 2x10^{-12} erg cm^{-2}s$^{-1}, and it is capable to scan, during each orbit, the entire sky with an angular resolution of 4--6 arcmin. This X-ray telescope is flanked by a Gamma Ray Burst Monitor, with the minimum requirement of recognizing true GRBs from other transient events. In this paper we describe the GRBM. In addition to the minimum requirement, the instrument proposed is capable to roughly localize GRBs which occur in the Lobster FOV (162x22.5 degrees) and to significantly extend the scientific capabilities of the main instrument for the study of GRBs and X-ray transients. The combination of the two instruments will allow an unprecedented spectral coverage (from 0.1 up to 300/700 keV) for a sensitive study of the GRB prompt emission in the passband where GRBs and X-Ray Flashes emit most of their energy. The low-energy spectral band (0.1-10 keV) is of key importance for the study of the GRB environment and the search of transient absorption and emission features from GRBs, both goals being crucial for unveiling the GRB phenomenon. The entire energy band of Lobster-ISS is not covered by either the Swift satellite or other GRB missions foreseen in the next decade.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures. Paper presented at the COSPAR 2004 General Assembly (Paris), accepted for publication in Advances in Space Research in June 2005 and available on-line at the Journal site (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02731177), section "Articles in press

    Antimicrobials: a global alliance for optimizing their rational use in intra-abdominal infections (AGORA)

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    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs

    Workplace democracy and training reform: Some emerging insights from Australia and New Zealand

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    This paper builds on a series of published articles and chapters that date back to the ESREA seminar on Adult education and the labour market held in Slovenia in 1993 Law, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998a, 1998b. The overarching purpose of that work has been to track and analyse, from a labour studies perspective, trade union strategies to education and training reform in Australia and New Zealand since the mid-1980s
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