315 research outputs found

    Performance of Widely Tunable Multi-Quantum-Well and Bulk Laser Diodes and the Main Limiting Factors

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    The output power and tuning performance of multi-quantum-well (MQW) and bulk InGaAsP/InP-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) tunable laser diodes (TLDs) are investigated over a wide wavelength tuning range using physics-based PICS3D and VPI laser simulation tools within the travelling-wave formalism. The key result of our simulations is the discovery of a new effect in TLDs due to intervalence band absorption (IVBA) in passive phase and DBR sections, which limits the wavelength tuning range. The physical mechanism responsible for such a behavior is a collapse of the spectral-mode selectivity by the DBR due to large IVBA losses in the phase or/and DBR sections. We fundamentally demonstrate different roles played by the IVBA in the active and passive sections of a TLD. It is shown that the IVBA in passive sections and the carrier relaxation broadening (CRB) of the Lorentzian lineshape function in the lasers' active and passive sections play a crucial role in TLD tuning operation. The IVBA coefficient k IVBA and the intraband relaxation time τ in are the major limiting factors that define the output power variation and the achievable tuning range of the lasers. Both bulk and MQW lasers with small k IVBA demonstrate a wide wavelength tuning range above 30 nm, while for large k IVBA , the tuning range drops below 10 nm. We show that the output power variation with tuning due to the CRB parameter τ in is qualitatively different in bulk and MQW TLDs. The TLD tuning and power performance is also strongly affected by the shapes of the net gain and the cavity mirror loss spectra and their mutual positioning with respect to the lasing cavity mode during the tuning. The limiting parameters k IVBA and τin as well as gain and mirror loss spectra must be thoroughly evaluated in each TLD structure prior to the device design and optimization in order to achieve the best performance in terms of the wavelength tuning and the output power stability

    Water and protein dynamics in protein-water mixtures over wide range of composition

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    © 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.[EN] Water and protein dynamics in two globular protein-water systems, water-lysozyme and water-BSA (bovine serum albumine), were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC) techniques. Water equilibrium sorption isotherms (ESI) measurements were also recorded at room temperature. The samples covered a wide range of composition, from practically dry solid pellets (2wt% of water) to dilute solutions (82wt% of water). Crystallization and melting events of water were studied by DSC and the amount of uncrystallized water was calculated. The evolution of dynamics with hydration level was followed for various dielectric relaxation processes, the emphasis being given to relaxation processes of polar groups on the surface of the proteins and of uncrystallized water molecules. A relationship between the formation of a conductive percolating water cluster and the saturation of the water process was found.This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.Kyritsis, A.; Panagopoulou, A.; Pissis, P.; Sabater I Serra, R.; Gómez Ribelles, JL.; Shinyashiki, N. (2012). Water and protein dynamics in protein-water mixtures over wide range of composition. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 19(4):1239-1246. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2012.6259997S1239124619

    Synthesis and Study of Fully Biodegradable Composites Based on Poly(butylene succinate) and Biochar

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    Biodegradable polymers offer a promising alternative to the global plastic problems and especially in the last decade, to the microplastics problems. For the first time, samples of poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu) biocomposites containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% biochar (BC) were prepared by in situ polymerization via the two-stage melt polycondensation procedure. BC was used as a filler for the PBSu to improve its mechanical properties, thermal transitions, and biodegradability. The structure of the synthesized polymers was examined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) along with an estimation of the molecular weights, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and light flash analysis (LFA) were also employed to record the thermal transitions and evaluate the thermal conductivity, respectively. It was found that the amount of BC does not affect the molecular weight of PBSu biocomposites. The fine dispersion of BC, as well as the increase in BC content in the polymeric matrix, significantly improves the tensile and impact strengths. The DSC analysis results showed that BC facilitates the crystallization of PBSu biocomposites. Due to the latter, a mild and systematic increase in thermal diffusivity and conductivity was recorded indicating that BC is a conductive material. The molecular mobility of PBSu, local and segmental, does not change significantly in the biocomposites, whereas the BC seems to cause an increase in the overall dielectric permittivity. Finally, it was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis degradation rate of biocomposites increased with the increasing BC content

    Local Commutativity and Causality in Interacting PP-wave String Field Theory

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    In this paper, we extend our previous study of causality and local commutativity of string fields in the pp-wave lightcone string field theory to include interaction. Contrary to the flat space case result of Lowe, Polchinski, Susskind, Thorlacius and Uglum, we found that the pp-wave interaction does not affect the local commutativity condition. Our results show that the pp-wave lightcone string field theory is not continuously connected with the flat space one. We also discuss the relation between the condition of local commutativity and causality. While the two notions are closely related in a point particle theory, their relation is less clear in string theory. We suggest that string local commutativity may be relevant for an operational defintion of causality using strings as probes.Comment: Latex, JHEP3.cls, 18 pages, no figures. v2: add comments about the UV-IR mixing effect displayed in our result. version to appear in JHE

    Machine Intelligence Identifies Soluble TNFa as a Therapeutic Target for Spinal Cord Injury

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    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) produces a complex syndrome that is expressed across multiple endpoints ranging from molecular and cellular changes to functional behavioral deficits. Effective therapeutic strategies for CNS injury are therefore likely to manifest multi-factorial effects across a broad range of biological and functional outcome measures. Thus, multivariate analytic approaches are needed to capture the linkage between biological and neurobehavioral outcomes. Injury-induced neuroinflammation (NI) presents a particularly challenging therapeutic target, since NI is involved in both degeneration and repair. Here, we used big-data integration and large-scale analytics to examine a large dataset of preclinical efficacy tests combining five different blinded, fully counter-balanced treatment trials for different acute anti-inflammatory treatments for cervical spinal cord injury in rats. Multi-dimensional discovery, using topological data analysis (TDA) and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that only one showed consistent multidimensional syndromic benefit: intrathecal application of recombinant soluble TNFα receptor 1 (sTNFR1), which showed an inverse-U dose response efficacy. Using the optimal acute dose, we showed that clinically-relevant 90 min delayed treatment profoundly affected multiple biological indices of NI in the first 48 h after injury, including reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene expression of a coherent complex of acute inflammatory mediators and receptors. Further, a 90 min delayed bolus dose of sTNFR1 reduced the expression of NI markers in the chronic perilesional spinal cord, and consistently improved neurological function over 6 weeks post SCI. These results provide validation of a novel strategy for precision preclinical drug discovery that is likely to improve translation in the difficult landscape of CNS trauma, and confirm the importance of TNFα signaling as a therapeutic target

    Dielectric relaxations of nanocomposites composed of HEUR polymers and magnetite nanoparticles

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    We investigate the dynamics of nanocomposites composed of hydrophobically modified ethoxylated urethanes (HEUR) and magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) as dry films. Weemployed dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC).The three techniques reveal a strong heterogeneity of the matrix of the nanocomposites, consisting of (i) a crystalline poly(ethyleneoxide) PEO bulk phase, (ii) an amorphous PEO portion, and (iii) small PEO crystallites which experience different constraints than the PEO bulk phase. TSDC and DRS reveal a very high direct current (DC)-conductivity of the pure matrix, which increases with MNPs concentration. The increase of the DCconductivity is not related to an increase of the segmental mobility, but most likely to the change of the morphology of the hydrophobic domains of the polymer matrix, due to the formation of large MNPs clusters. Indeed, the MNPs neither influence the segmental dynamics of the polymer nor the phase behavior of the polymer matrix. The addition of MNPs slightly increases the activation energy related to the γ-relaxation of the polymer. This effect might be related to the changes in nano-morphology as demonstrated by the slight increase of the degree of crystallinity. The analysis of the DRS data with the electrical modulus M’’(ω) and the derivative ε’’der formalism allow us to identify a low-frequency process in addition to the conductivity relaxation. This low-frequency dispersion is also revealed by TSDC. It is most likely related to the Maxwell-Wagner- Sillars relaxation, which typically occurs in systems which feature phase separation. The detailed investigation of the dielectric properties of these novel nanocomposites with increasing MNPs concentration will be useful for their practical application, for example as absorbers of electromagnetic waves

    RoboPol: AGN polarimetric monitoring data

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    We present uniformly reprocessed and re-calibrated data from the RoboPol programme of optopolarimetric monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), covering observations between 2013, when the instrument was commissioned, and 2017. In total, the dataset presented in this paper includes 5068 observations of 222 AGN with Dec > -25 deg. We describe the current version of the RoboPol pipeline that was used to process and calibrate the entire dataset, and we make the data publicly available for use by the astronomical community. Average quantities summarising optopolarimetric behaviour (average degree of polarization, polarization variability index) are also provided for each source we have observed and for the time interval we have followed it.Comment: Accepted to MNRA
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