242 research outputs found

    Management of hereditary breast cancer: Surgeon's perspective

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    Mutations due to hereditary related genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN confer greater risk of developing breast cancer and for BRCA mutations, also ovarian cancer. The risk assessment based on genetic testing allows options of high risk surveillance, prevention and may now also guide use of specific therapies for treatment such as targeted therapies and use of platinum base chemotherapy. The choice of management, once an individual has been found to carry the BRCA mutation may also vary. Moreover the availability of genetic testing, method of testing such as the transition into the use of Next Generation Sequencing techniques has also increased options of clinicians to the choice of testing.Breast Surgeons are most likely to be the first person who encounters the first presentation of a breast cancer patient. It is important for breast surgeons to be actively involved in the referrals of patients for genetic testing and subsequently planning of the management of such high risk individuals in a multidisciplinary setting. Basic principles of genetic testing and choice of management will be discussed in reference to the surgeon’s perspectives. Keywords: mutations, BRCA1. BRCA2. TP53, PTEN, NGS, multidisciplinary settin

    Factors that Can Promote or Impede the Advancement of Women as Leaders in Surgery : Results from an International Survey

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    Compared with male surgeons, women have less success advancing their careers and are underrepresented in leadership positions in surgery. The purpose of this study is to identify the qualifications necessary to become leaders in surgery and the career barriers faced by women surgeons in various cultural environments. A survey was performed with women surgeons in Japan, USA, Finland, and Hong Kong, China, to assess various barriers faced by women surgeons in the respective countries. To develop appropriate survey tool, a preliminary questionnaire was distributed to leaders in surgery and also in various organizations worldwide. The response rate was 23 % with 225 of 964 survey returned. Japanese women surgeons identify lacked family support as impeding a successful surgical career. US women surgeons feel more latent gender discrimination. Finnish women surgeons are less likely to need to sacrifice work-life balance, when holding leadership positions. Women surgeons worldwide are highly motivated to develop their career and agree the percentage of women surgeons in leadership positions should be increased. Women surgeons in different countries perceive different challenges. We must develop strategies and should not hesitate to negotiate to overcome these issues to reach leadership positions in surgery. This may be accomplished through networking worldwide to improve current conditions and obstacles.Peer reviewe

    SLC19A3 (solute carrier family 19 (thiamine transporter), member 3)

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    Review on SLC19A3 (solute carrier family 19 (thiamine transporter), member 3) , with data on DNA, on the protein encoded, and where the gene is implicated

    Managing BRCA Mutation Carriers in China: Reply

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    published_or_final_versionSpringer Open Choice, 31 May 201

    Elevation of methylated DNA in KILLIN/PTEN in the plasma of patients with thyroid and/or breast cancer

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    © 2014 Ng et al. Around 80% of mutations in the PTEN gene have been reported to be associated with diseases such as Cowden syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with an increased risk of developing breast, thyroid, and endometrial neoplasms. Recent studies have also demonstrated that KILLIN, which is located proximally to PTEN, shares the same transcription start site, and is assumed to be regulated by the same promoter, but is transcribed in the opposite direction. In this regard, we postulate that there may be a connection between KILLIN/PTEN genes and breast and thyroid cancers. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we found that expression of KILLIN, but not PTEN, was significantly decreased in 23 Chinese women with a personal history of breast and thyroid cancer or a personal history of breast cancer and a family history of thyroid cancer, or vice versa, and at least two persons in the family with thyroid cancer or at a young age ,40 years, when compared with healthy controls (P<0.0001). No PTEN mutations were found in these 23 patients. We then developed a simple methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme digestion followed by real-time quantitative assay to quantify plasma methylated KILLIN/PTEN DNA in these patients. Plasma levels of methylated KILLIN/PTEN DNA were significantly increased in these patients when compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). This study shows that plasma methylated KILLIN/PTEN DNA was significantly elevated, suggesting hypermethylation of the KILLIN/PTEN promoter in breast and thyroid cancer patients.published_or_final_versio

    Breast Cancer in Hong Kong, Southern China: The First Population-Based Analysis of Epidemiological Characteristics, Stage-Specific, Cancer-Specific, and Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer Patients: 1997–2001

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    Background: Cancer registries have been set up worldwide to provide information for cancer health planning. There are known variations in breast cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. However, breast cancer incidence, pathological characteristics, and survival data is still underreported in Asian countries. This is the first comprehensive population-based breast cancer study performed using population database of the Hong Kong Cancer Registry. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 8,961 subjects who were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2001 and followed up to December 31, 2007. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical data. Estimates of overall, disease-free, and cancer-specific survival at 5 years were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and stage-specific relative survival rates were calculated. Results: A total of 7,630 breast cancer patients' medical records and dataset were available during this period, and 7,449 subjects were eligible for the final analysis. Median follow-up was 84 months. A total of 47.4% were diagnosed with breast cancer at age 49 years and younger;22.2%, 46.9%, 10.8%, and 4.1% presented at stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively. A total of 53.5% had ER-positive cancer, and 20.3% had HER2-positive cancers;13.4% had triplenegative cancers. The relative, cancer-specific, and diseasefree survival rates at 5 years were 84%, 85.2%, and 81.2%, respectively. Discussion. We performed the first comprehensive population-based breast cancer epidemiology study in Southern China using the Hong Kong Cancer Registry database. This provides a baseline study cohort for comparative studies with other Asian countries and Chinese who have migrated to the West. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com.published_or_final_versionSpringer Open Choice, 21 Feb 201

    A novel de novo BRCA1 mutation in a Chinese woman with early onset breast cancer

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    Germline mutations in the two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a significant portion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. De novo mutations such as multiple exon deletion are rarely occurred in BRCA1 and BRCA2. During our mutation screening for BRCA1/2 genes to Chinese women with risk factors for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, we identified a novel germline mutation, consisting of a deletion from exons 1 to 12 in BRCA1 gene, in a patient diagnosed with early onset triple negative breast cancer with no family history of cancer. None of her parents carried the mutation and molecular analysis showed that this novel de novo germline mutation resulted in down-regulation of BRCA1 gene expression

    Localization of hRad9 in breast cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>hRad9 </it>is a cell cycle checkpoint gene that is up-regulated in breast cancer. We have previously shown that the mRNA up-regulation correlated with tumor size and local recurrence. Immunohistochemical studies were made to better define the role of <it>hRad9 </it>in breast carcinogenesis.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Localisation of hRad9 protein were performed on paired tumor and normal breast tissues. Immunoblotting with and without dephosphorylation was used to define the protein isolated from breast cancer cells.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Increased hRad9 protein was observed in breast cancer cells nucleus compared to non-tumor epithelium. This nuclear protein existed in hyperphosphorylated forms which may be those of the hRad9-hRad1-hHus1 complex.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Finding of hyperphosphorylated forms of hRad9 in the nucleus of cancer cells is in keeping with its function in ameliorating DNA instability, whereby it inadvertently assists tumor growth.</p

    The genetic interplay between body mass index, breast size and breast cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

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    BACKGROUND: Evidence linking breast size to breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, and its interpretation is often hampered by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here, we used linkage disequilibrium score regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the genetic associations between BMI, breast size and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Summary-level genotype data from 23andMe, Inc (breast size, n = 33 790), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (breast cancer risk, n = 228 951) and the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (BMI, n = 183 507) were used for our analyses. In assessing causal relationships, four complementary MR techniques [inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, weighted mode and MR-Egger regression] were used to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: The genetic correlation (rg) estimated between BMI and breast size was high (rg = 0.50, P = 3.89x10-43). All MR methods provided consistent evidence that higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with larger breast size [odds ratio (ORIVW): 2.06 (1.80-2.35), P = 1.38x10-26] and lower overall breast cancer risk [ORIVW: 0.81 (0.74-0.89), P = 9.44x10-6]. No evidence of a relationship between genetically predicted breast size and breast cancer risk was found except when using the weighted median and weighted mode methods, and only with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative risk. There was no evidence of reverse causality in any of the analyses conducted (P > 0.050). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a potential positive causal association between BMI and breast size and a potential negative causal association between BMI and breast cancer risk. We found no clear evidence for a direct relationship between breast size and breast cancer risk
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