779 research outputs found

    EXCITON ENGINEERING THROUGH TUNALBLE FLUORESCENT QUANTUM DEFECTS

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    This thesis demonstrates exciton engineering in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes through tunable fluorescent quantum defects. By introducing different functional moieties on the sp2 lattice of carbon nanotubes, the nanotube photoluminescence is systematically tuned over 68 meV in the second near-infrared window. This new class of quantum emitters is enabled by a new chemistry that allows covalent attachment of alkyl/aryl functional groups from their iodide precursors in aqueous solution. Using aminoaryl quantum defects, we show that the pH and temperature of complex fluids can be optically measured through defect photoluminescence that encodes the local environment information. Furthermore, defect-bound trions, which are electron-hole-electron tri-carrier quasi-particles, are observed in alkylated single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature with surprisingly high photoluminescence brightness. Collectively, the emission from defect-bound excitons and trions in (6,5)-single walled carbon nanotubes is 18-fold brighter than that of the native exciton. These findings pave the way to chemical tailoring of the electronic and optical properties of carbon nanostructures with fluorescent quantum defects and may find applications in optoelectronics and bioimaging

    Experimental investigation of plain- and flapped-wing tip vortices

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    Particle image velocimetry was used in a low-speed wind tunnel to investigate and characterize wing tip vortex structures. A rectangular wing of a subsonic wall interference model was used as a vortex generator in two different configurations: 1) plain wing and 2) flapped wing with the trailing-edge flap extended at 20 degrees. Vortex flow quantities and their dependence on angle of attack at Reynolds numbers of 32:8 � 103 and 43:8 � 103 were evaluated. Assessment of measured data reveals that the peak values of tangential velocities, vortex strength, and vorticities are directly proportional to the angle of attack. The vortex core radius value grows slowly as the angle of attack is increased. Both plain and flapped configurations showed similar trends. The peak tangential velocities and circulation almost doubled when the flapped configuration was used instead of the plain wing

    Experimental investigation of wing tip vortex

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    Particle image velocimetery was used in a low-speed wind tunnel to investigate and characterize wing tip vortex structures. A rectangular wing of a SWIM model was used as a vortex generator in two different configurations, (i) plain wing and (ii) flapped wing with trailing edge flap extended at 20 degrees. Vortex flow quantities and their dependence on angle of attack at a chord base Reynolds Number of 32.8x103 and 43.8x103 were evaluated. Assessment of measured data reveals that the peak values of tangential velocities, vortex strength and vorticities are directly proportional to the angle of attack. The vortex core radius value grows slowly as the angle of attack is increased. Both plain and flapped configurations showed similar trends. The peak tangential velocities and circulation distribution doubled when the flapped configuration was used instead of the plain wing

    Perturbation of the Hematopoietic System during Embryonic Liver Development Due to Disruption of Polyubiquitin Gene Ubc in Mice

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    Disruption of the polyubiquitin gene Ubc leads to a defect in fetal liver development, which can be partially rescued by increasing the amount of ubiquitin. However, it is still not known why Ubc is required for fetal liver development and the nature of the defective cell types responsible for embryonic lethality have not been characterized. In this study, we assessed the cause of embryonic lethality with respect to the fetal liver hematopoietic system. We found that Ubc was highly expressed in the embryonic liver, and the proliferation capacity of fetal liver cells was reduced in Ubc−/− embryos. Specifically, Ubc was most highly expressed in hematopoietic cells, and the proliferation capacity of hematopoietic cells was significantly impaired in Ubc−/− embryos. While hematopoietic cell and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) frequency was maintained in Ubc−/− embryos, the absolute number of these cells was diminished because of reduced total liver cell number in Ubc−/− embryos. Transplantations of fetal liver cells into lethally irradiated recipient mice by non-competitive and competitive reconstitution methods indicated that disruption of Ubc does not significantly impair the intrinsic function of fetal liver HSCs. These findings suggest that disruption of Ubc reduces the absolute number of HSCs in embryonic livers, but has no significant effect on the autonomous function of HSCs. Thus, the lethality of Ubc−/− embryos is not the result of intrinsic HSC failure

    Effect of total intravenous versus inhalation anesthesia on long-term oncological outcomes in patients undergoing curative resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective cohort study

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    Background Propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) improves long-term outcomes after cancer surgery compared with inhalation anesthesia. However, its effect on patients undergoing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) surgery remains unclear. We aimed to compare the oncological outcomes of TIVA and inhalation anesthesia after curative resection of early-stage NSCLC. Methods We analyzed the medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC who underwent curative resection at a tertiary university hospital between January 2010 and December 2017. The primary outcomes were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) according to anesthesia type. Results We included 1,508 patients with stage I/II NSCLC. The patients were divided into the TIVA (n = 980) and Inhalation (n = 528) groups. The two groups were well-balanced in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. The TIVA group demonstrated significantly improved RFS (7.7 years, 95% CI [7.37, 8.02]) compared with the Inhalation group (6.8 years, 95% CI [6.30, 7.22], P = 0.003). Similarly, TIVA was superior to inhalation agents with respect to OS (median OS; 8.4 years, 95% CI [8.08, 8.69] vs. 7.3 years, 95% CI [6.81, 7.71]; P < 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that TIVA was an independent prognostic factor related to recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24, 95% CI [1.04, 1.47], P = 0.014) and OS (HR: 1.39, 95% CI [1.12, 1.72], P = 0.002). Conclusions Propofol-based TIVA was associated with better RFS and OS than inhalation anesthesia in patients with stage I/II NSCLC who underwent curative resection

    Career exploration behavior of Korean medical students

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