2,729 research outputs found

    Light-cone Quantum Mechanics of the Eleven-dimensional Superparticle

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    The linearized interactions of eleven-dimensional supergravity are obtained in a manifestly supersymmetric light-cone gauge formalism. These vertices are used to calculate certain one-loop processes involving external gravitini, antisymmetric three-form potentials and gravitons, thereby determining some protected terms in the effective action of M-theory compactified on a two-torus.Comment: 31 pages, harvmac (b); A minor TeX error correcte

    Electron-boson spectral density of LiFeAs obtained from optical data

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    We analyze existing optical data in the superconducting state of LiFeAs at T=T = 4 K, to recover its electron-boson spectral density. A maximum entropy technique is employed to extract the spectral density I2χ(ω)I^2\chi(\omega) from the optical scattering rate. Care is taken to properly account for elastic impurity scattering which can importantly affect the optics in an ss-wave superconductor, but does not eliminate the boson structure. We find a robust peak in I2χ(ω)I^2\chi(\omega) centered about ΩR\Omega_R \cong 8.0 meV or 5.3 kBTck_B T_c (with Tc=T_c = 17.6 K). Its position in energy agrees well with a similar structure seen in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). There is also a peak in the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data at this same energy. This peak is found to persist in the normal state at T=T = 23 K. There is evidence that the superconducting gap is anisotropic as was also found in low temperature angular resolved photoemission (ARPES) data.Comment: 17 pages, 6 figure

    Two loops in eleven dimensions

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    The two-loop Feynman diagram contribution to the four-graviton amplitude of eleven-dimensional supergravity compactified on a two-torus, T^2, is analyzed in detail. The Schwinger parameter integrations are re-expressed as integration over the moduli space of a second torus, \hat T^2, which enables the leading low-momentum contribution to be evaluated in terms of maps of \hat T^2 into T^2. The ultraviolet divergences associated with boundaries of moduli space are regularized in a manner that is consistent with the expected duality symmetries of string theory. This leads to an exact expression for terms of order contraction of four Weyl tensors), thereby extending earlier results for the R^4 term that were based on the one-loop eleven-dimensional amplitude. Precise agreement is found with terms in type IIA and IIB superstring theory that arise from the low energy expansion of the tree-level and one-loop string amplitudes and predictions are made for the coefficients of certain two-loop string theory terms as well as for an infinite set of D-instanton contributions. The contribution at the next order in the derivative expansion, \partial^6 R^4, is problematic, which may indicate that it mixes with higher-loop effects in eleven-dimensional supergravity

    Dynamic behavior of driven interfaces in models with two absorbing states

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    We study the dynamics of an interface (active domain) between different absorbing regions in models with two absorbing states in one dimension; probabilistic cellular automata models and interacting monomer-dimer models. These models exhibit a continuous transition from an active phase into an absorbing phase, which belongs to the directed Ising (DI) universality class. In the active phase, the interface spreads ballistically into the absorbing regions and the interface width diverges linearly in time. Approaching the critical point, the spreading velocity of the interface vanishes algebraically with a DI critical exponent. Introducing a symmetry-breaking field hh that prefers one absorbing state over the other drives the interface to move asymmetrically toward the unpreferred absorbing region. In Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the spreading velocity of this driven interface shows a discontinuous jump at criticality. We explain that this unusual behavior is due to a finite relaxation time in the absorbing phase. The crossover behavior from the symmetric case (DI class) to the asymmetric case (directed percolation class) is also studied. We find the scaling dimension of the symmetry-breaking field yh=1.21(5)y_h = 1.21(5).Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, Revte

    TAZ Suppresses NFAT5 Activity through Tyrosine Phosphorylation

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    Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) physically interacts with a variety of transcription factors and modulates their activities involved in cell proliferation and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. TAZ is highly expressed in the kidney, and a deficiency of this protein results in multiple renal cysts and urinary concentration defects; however, the molecular functions of TAZ in renal cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of osmotic stress on TAZ expression and activity in renal cells. We found that hyperosmotic stress selectively increased protein phosphorylation at tyrosine 316 of TAZ and that this was enhanced by c-Abl activation in response to hyperosmotic stress. Interestingly, phosphorylated TAZ physically interacted with nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a major osmoregulatory transcription factor, and subsequently suppressed DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NFAT5. Furthermore, TAZ deficiency elicited an increase in NFAT5 activity in vitro and in vivo, which then reverted to basal levels following restoration of wild-type TAZ but not mutant TAZ (Y316F). Collectively, the data suggest that TAZ modulates cellular responses to hyperosmotic stress through fine-tuning of NFAT5 activity via tyrosine phosphorylation.open3

    Branching and annihilating Levy flights

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    We consider a system of particles undergoing the branching and annihilating reactions A -> (m+1)A and A + A -> 0, with m even. The particles move via long-range Levy flights, where the probability of moving a distance r decays as r^{-d-sigma}. We analyze this system of branching and annihilating Levy flights (BALF) using field theoretic renormalization group techniques close to the upper critical dimension d_c=sigma, with sigma<2. These results are then compared with Monte-Carlo simulations in d=1. For sigma close to unity in d=1, the critical point for the transition from an absorbing to an active phase occurs at zero branching. However, for sigma bigger than about 3/2 in d=1, the critical branching rate moves smoothly away from zero with increasing sigma, and the transition lies in a different universality class, inaccessible to controlled perturbative expansions. We measure the exponents in both universality classes and examine their behavior as a function of sigma.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    Mechanism of Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity Is Correlated to Impaired Metabolism Due to Mitochondrial ROS Generation

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    The chemotherapeutic use of cisplatin is limited by its severe side effects. In this study, by conducting different omics data analyses, we demonstrated that cisplatin induces cell death in a proximal tubular cell line by suppressing glycolysis-and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/mitochondria-related genes. Furthermore, analysis of the urine from cisplatin-treated rats revealed the lower expression levels of enzymes involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, and genes related to mitochondrial stability and confirmed the cisplatin-related metabolic abnormalities. Additionally, an increase in the level of p53, which directly inhibits glycolysis, has been observed. Inhibition of p53 restored glycolysis and significantly reduced the rate of cell death at 24 h and 48 h due to p53 inhibition. The foremost reason of cisplatin-related cytotoxicity has been correlated to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) that influence multiple pathways. Abnormalities in these pathways resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial energy production, which in turn sensitized the cells to death. The quenching of ROS led to the amelioration of the affected pathways. Considering these observations, it can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between cisplatin and metabolic dysfunctions involving mROS as the major player.116224Ysciescopu

    Does hardcore interaction change absorbing type critical phenomena?

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    It has been generally believed that hardcore interaction is irrelevant to absorbing type critical phenomena because the particle density is so low near an absorbing phase transition. We study the effect of hardcore interaction on the N species branching annihilating random walks with two offspring and report that hardcore interaction drastically changes the absorbing type critical phenomena in a nontrivial way. Through Langevin equation type approach, we predict analytically the values of the scaling exponents, ν=2,z=2,α=1/2,β=2\nu_{\perp} = 2, z = 2, \alpha = 1/2, \beta = 2 in one dimension for all N > 1. Direct numerical simulations confirm our prediction. When the diffusion coefficients for different species are not identical, ν\nu_{\perp} and β\beta vary continuously with the ratios between the coefficients.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur

    Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with phosphate transporter 1 (OsPT1) gene overexpression under high phosphate soils

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    Farmers have used phosphate fertilizer to provide sufficient yields. However, overuse of phosphorus accumulate in soil and causes soil and water pollution. We evaluated the phosphate acquisition and growth characteristics of OsPT1 transgenic rice (OsPT1-OX, over-expressing the high affinity phosphate transporter 1) in high phosphate soils with different level of nitrogen fertilizer treatment to investigate its removal ability of excessive phosphate from soil. OsPT1-OX had shorter culm length but more tillers than those of wild-type plants in each soil conditions. Phosphate content per dry weight of OsPT1-OX was 1.8 times higher than that of wild-type under control fertilizer treated conditions. Although the dry weight of OsPT1-OX was not different from that of wild-type plants, whole plant phosphate content was 1.7 times higher than that of wild-type plants under control fertilizer conditions. Tiller number and phosphate content per dry weight of wild-type plants increased following high levels of phosphate application, but did not change following additional nitrogen application. Tiller number and phosphate content per dry weight of OsPT1-OX did not also change under the high phosphate condition, but increased following nitrogen application under similar conditions. Whole plant phosphate content was also highest under high nitrogen and high phosphate application conditions. These results suggest that OsPT1-OX may reduce phosphate content in soils containing excess phosphate and may be further effective under high nitrogen condition.Key words: Phosphate content, fertilizer treatment, phosphate transporter, rice, soil

    Critical phenomena of nonequilibrium dynamical systems with two absorbing states

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    We study nonequilibrium dynamical models with two absorbing states: interacting monomer-dimer models, probabilistic cellular automata models, nonequilibrium kinetic Ising models. These models exhibit a continuous phase transition from an active phase into an absorbing phase which belongs to the universality class of the models with the parity conservation. However, when we break the symmetry between the absorbing states by introducing a symmetry-breaking field, Monte Carlo simulations show that the system goes back to the conventional directed percolation universality class. In terms of domain wall language, the parity conservation is not affected by the presence of the symmetry-breaking field. So the symmetry between the absorbing states rather than the conservation laws plays an essential role in determining the universality class. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations for the various interface dynamics between different absorbing states, which yield new universal dynamic exponents. With the symmetry-breaking field, the interface moves, in average, with a constant velocity in the direction of the unpreferred absorbing state and the dynamic scaling exponents apparently assume trivial values. However, we find that the hyperscaling relation for the directed percolation universality class is restored if one focuses on the dynamics of the interface on the side of the preferred absorbing state only.Comment: 11 pages, 21 figures, Revtex, submitted to Phy. Rev.
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