1,493 research outputs found

    Feminist Visions of the Future of Women’s Work: A systemic exploration of the past, present, and future of women at work in Canada

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    We are still far from achieving gender equality at work, as our modern workplace is designed by men for men. Women’s economic participation and prosperity face systemic barriers and are further threatened by the digitization and automation that drive the future of work. These technological advances, along with demographic shifts, social movements, and political factors, lead to new disruptive employment systems. However, the impacts and discussion around the future of work are often gender-blind. This research uses a systemic lens to explore the past, present, and future of women’s work. A systemic analysis of gender equality in the workplace reveals how our workplace, governance, social, and economic structures create systemic barriers to undervalue women’s work. Strategic foresight is used to explore the trends shaping the future of work using a gendered lens, and scenarios help us envision how our systems can evolve to value women’s work. Risks and opportunities from each scenario informed insights that can help us design our preferred future, where women can fully participate in the workplace and be valued for their contributions

    An Optical and Infrared Time-Domain Study of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient Candidate IC 10 X-2

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    We present an optical and infrared (IR) study of IC 10 X-2, a high-mass X-ray binary in the galaxy IC 10. Previous optical and X-ray studies suggest X-2 is a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient: a large-amplitude (factor of \sim 100), short-duration (hours to weeks) X-ray outburst on 2010 May 21. We analyze R- and g-band light curves of X-2 from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory taken between 2013 July 15 and 2017 Feb 14 show high-amplitude (\gtrsim 1 mag), short-duration (8\lesssim8 d) flares and dips (\gtrsim 0.5 mag). Near-IR spectroscopy of X-2 from Palomar/TripleSpec show He I, Paschen-γ\gamma, and Paschen-β\beta emission lines with similar shapes and amplitudes as those of luminous blue variables (LBVs) and LBV candidates (LBVc). Mid-IR colors and magnitudes from Spitzer/IRAC photometry of X-2 resemble those of known LBV/LBVcs. We suggest that the stellar companion in X-2 is an LBV/LBVc and discuss possible origins of the optical flares. Dips in the optical light curve are indicative of eclipses from optically thick clumps formed in the winds of the stellar counterpart. Given the constraints on the flare duration (0.020.80.02 - 0.8 d) and the time between flares (15.1±7.815.1\pm7.8 d), we estimate the clump volume filling factor in the stellar winds, fVf_V, to be 0.01<fV<0.710.01 < f_V < 0.71, which overlaps with values measured from massive star winds. In X-2, we interpret the origin of the optical flares as the accretion of clumps formed in the winds of an LBV/LBVc onto the compact object.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to ApJ on Sep 26 201

    Developing a feedback-rich culture in academic medicine: the effect of coaching and 360-feedback on physician leadership

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    Background: This is a time of unprecedented change in healthcare. More physicians are being tasked with stepping into a variety of leadership roles without having received the training needed to be an effective leader. Previous data have demonstrated the effectiveness of both leadership coaching and 360-feedback tools to foster physician well-being and leadership growth. In this proof of concept study, we explore the combined effect of these two tools. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a brief physician 360 leadership coaching intervention on perception of professional dynamics and acquired leadership skills. Methods: Participants completed a tailored 360-feedback tool to gather input on their leadership skills, then engaged in five bi-weekly leadership coaching sessions. We conducted a post-intervention semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative data were coded using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results: Twenty-three primary care physicians at an academic medical center engaged in the 360 leadership coaching study. Participants reported that the intervention yielded valuable benefits in five coaching sessions. Two overarching themes emerged: a Shift in leadership awareness and Navigating their environment. Leadership awareness included increased clarity of purpose and role, and recognition that routine feedback is critical to leadership development. Navigating their environment included gaining relationship-building communication, organizational awareness and navigation strategies. Conclusions: Combining a tailored 360-feedback tool with a five-session leadership coaching intervention provided physicians with valued support infrastructure for becoming more effective leaders. Physicians described a nuanced understanding of the leadership challenges physicians face, and identified the leadership tools needed to navigate the evolving healthcare delivery landscape. Curricula for physician leadership learning could consider this combination of a customized 360 plus targeted leadership coaching for training physician leaders

    Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Transplantation of Hematological Diseases from Related, Haploidentical Donors after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning

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    AbstractIn a multicenter collaboration, we carried out T cell–replete, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations from related, HLA-haploidentical donors with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in 55 patients with high-risk hematologic disorders. Patients received 2 doses of Cy 50 mg/kg i.v. on days 3 and 4 after infusion of PBSC (mean, 6.4 × 106/kg CD34+ cells; mean, 2.0 × 108/kg CD3+ cells). The median times to neutrophil (500/μL) and platelet (>20,000/μL) recovery were 17 and 21 days respectively. All but 2 of the patients achieved full engraftment. The 1-year cumulative incidences of grade II and grade III acute GVHD were 53% and 8%, respectively. There were no cases of grade IV GVHD. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GHVD was 18%. With a median follow-up of 509 days, overall survival and event-free survival at 2 years were 48% and 51%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 23% and 28%, respectively. Our results suggest that PBSC can be substituted safely and effectively for bone marrow as the graft source for haploidentical transplantation after RIC

    Direct Measurements of the Convective Recycling of the Upper Troposphere

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    We present a statistical representation of the aggregate effects of deep convection on the chemistry and dynamics of the Upper Troposphere (UT) based on direct aircraft observations of the chemical composition of the UT over the Eastern United States and Canada during summer. These measurements provide new and unique observational constraints on the chemistry occurring downwind of convection and the rate at which air in the UT is recycled, previously only the province of model analyses. These results provide quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate global climate and chemistry models

    CD24 + Liver Tumor-Initiating Cells Drive Self-Renewal and Tumor Initiation through STAT3-Mediated NANOG Regulation

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    Tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) are a subpopulation of chemoresistant tumor cells that have been shown to cause tumor recurrence upon chemotherapy. Identification of T-ICs and their related pathways are therefore priorities for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. We established chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft tumors in immunocompromised mice in which an enriched T-IC population was capable of tumor initiation and self-renewal. With this model, we found CD24 to be upregulated in residual chemoresistant tumors when compared with bulk tumor upon cisplatin treatment. CD24 + HCC cells were found to be critical for the maintenance, self-renewal, differentiation, and metastasis of tumors and to significantly impact patients' clinical outcome. With a lentiviral-based knockdown approach, CD24 was found to be a functional liver T-IC marker that drives T-IC genesis through STAT3-mediated NANOG regulation. Our findings point to a CD24 cascade in liver T-ICs that may provide an attractive therapeutic target for HCC patients. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.postprin

    Mortality Among Adults With Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy and Infected With COVID-19

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    Importance: Large cohorts of patients with active cancers and COVID-19 infection are needed to provide evidence of the association of recent cancer treatment and cancer type with COVID-19 mortality. // Objective: To evaluate whether systemic anticancer treatments (SACTs), tumor subtypes, patient demographic characteristics (age and sex), and comorbidities are associated with COVID-19 mortality. // Design, Setting, and Participants: The UK Coronavirus Cancer Monitoring Project (UKCCMP) is a prospective cohort study conducted at 69 UK cancer hospitals among adult patients (≥18 years) with an active cancer and a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients registered from March 18 to August 1, 2020, were included in this analysis. // Exposures: SACT, tumor subtype, patient demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, body mass index, race and ethnicity, smoking history), and comorbidities were investigated. // Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was all-cause mortality within the primary hospitalization. // Results: Overall, 2515 of 2786 patients registered during the study period were included; 1464 (58%) were men; and the median (IQR) age was 72 (62-80) years. The mortality rate was 38% (966 patients). The data suggest an association between higher mortality in patients with hematological malignant neoplasms irrespective of recent SACT, particularly in those with acute leukemias or myelodysplastic syndrome (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.30-3.60) and myeloma or plasmacytoma (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.26). Lung cancer was also significantly associated with higher COVID-19–related mortality (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.11-2.25). No association between higher mortality and receiving chemotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed after correcting for the crucial confounders of age, sex, and comorbidities. An association between lower mortality and receiving immunotherapy in the 4 weeks before COVID-19 diagnosis was observed (immunotherapy vs no cancer therapy: OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86). // Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study of patients with active cancer suggest that recent SACT is not associated with inferior outcomes from COVID-19 infection. This has relevance for the care of patients with cancer requiring treatment, particularly in countries experiencing an increase in COVID-19 case numbers. Important differences in outcomes among patients with hematological and lung cancers were observed

    The Lancaster Care Charter

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    In the fall of 1991 the Munich Design Charter was published in Design Issues. This charter was written as a design-led “call to arms” on the future nations and boundaries of Europe. The signatories of the Munich Design Charter saw the problem of Europe, at that time, as fundamentally a problem of form that should draw on the creativity and expertise of design. Likewise, the Does Design Care…? workshop held at Imagination, Lancaster University in the autumn of 2017 brought together a multidisciplinary group of people from 16 nations across 5 continents, who, at a critical moment in design discourse saw a problem with the future of Care. The Lancaster Care Charter has been written in response to the vital question “Does Design Care…?” and via a series of conversations, stimulated by a range of presentations that explored a range of provocations, insights, and more questions, provides answers for the contemporary context of Care. With nation and boundary now erased by the flow of Capital the Charter aims to address the complex and urgent challenges for Care as both the future possible and the responsibility of design. The Lancaster Care Charter presents a collective vision and sets out new pragmatic encounters for the design of Care and the care of Design
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