4,448 research outputs found

    Risk and return of publicly held versus privately owned banks

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    The author divides bank holding companies (BHCs) into four size classes, then categorizes each class according to public or private ownership. He compares the performance and risk across bank size classes between 1986 and 2000 and in five-year windows therein. For the largest BHCs, returns on assets and operating costs do not depend on ownership, but for the smaller BHCs, returns on assets are lower and operating costs are higher for those that are publicly owned. Small public BHCs also hold more capital than do small private ones.Corporate governance ; Bank holding companies ; Bank stocks ; Bank management

    Safe and sound banking, 20 years later: what was proposed and what has been adopted

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    In 1986, a task force of banking academics organized and sponsored by the American Bankers Association convened to examine the banking industry and the efficacy of its regulatory system. The group was charged with reviewing the problems of ensuring the safety and soundness of the banking system and evaluating a number of policy options to improve the efficiency, performance, and safety of the system by changing the structure of the deposit insurance system and the bank regulatory and supervisory process. The results of the work of the task force were published by the MIT Press as the book, Perspectives on Safe and Sound Banking (Benston et al., 1986, the Report), which includes a set of principal options and recommendations. The purpose of this article is to assess the extent to which changes in public policy regarding depository institutions have been aligned with the recommendations of the Report. We find that, over the past 20 years, several legislative initiatives and changes in regulations and the bank supervisory process have been in keeping with the specific recommendations of the Report or with the analytic framework underlying the recommendations. At the same time, other recommendations in the Report have not been taken up and some proposals rejected in the Report have been put in place by legislative and regulatory initiatives. Overall, public policy and private sector initiatives appear to have contributed to safer and sounder banking and thrift sectors over the past 20 years. Consistent with what we see as the main theme of the Report, a likely contributing factor is the more appropriate alignment of incentive for risk-taking among larger depository institutions. Developments affecting risk-taking by depository institutions likely include higher capitalizations, greater risk exposure of private sector stakeholders more generally, improvements in risk management, and supervision and regulation that is focused on overall risk.Banks and banking ; Bank supervision

    Bank Risk, Capitalization and Inefficiency

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    This paper employs a simultaneous equations approach to measuring the tradeoffs between risk, capitalization and measured inefficiencies in a sample of 254 large bank holding companies over the period 1986 through 1991. The results confirm the belief that these three variables are simultaneously determined. Furthermore, asymmetries were identified in the relationship between risk and inefficiencies. Support was found in the asset risk equations for the hypothesis that less efficient institutions took on more risk to off set this inefficiency, thereby transferring risk to the deposit insurance finds. Similarly, less efficient institutions tended to be less well capitalized, a result that may also be associated with differences in management quality. Finally, evidence is provided that risk averse managers tend to expend real resources to reduce asset risk, which makes them appear to be inefficient, when compared to efficiency measures derived under the assumption of risk neutrality. This paper was presented at the Financial Institutions Center's October 1996 conference on "

    Early Chinese Faience and Glass Beads and Pendants

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    The earliest Chinese beads and pendants were composed of faience and appeared during the early Western Zhou period, around the 11th Century B.C. True glass began to be made about the time of the Spring and Autumn period (771-467 B.C.). An amazing variety of beautiful dragonfly-eye beads appeared in China during the Warring States period (475-221 B.C.), but these were imported and not local products. The complex eye beads were replaced during the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) by small, plain glass beads generally intended to be strung together. Perforated glass ear spools were also popular during this period and were sometimes adorned with bead strands. Small glass stringing beads as well as other forms continued in use in subsequent dynasties, as did various types of pendants. During the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), glass was used to produce beautiful imitation jade objects including fanciful compound pendants. These were often finely carved and exhibit a high level of craftsmanship

    The 2007-09 financial crisis and bank opaqueness

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    Doubts about the accuracy with which outside investors can assess a banking firm’s value motivate many government interventions in the banking market. The recent financial crisis has reinforced concerns about the possibility that banks are unusually opaque. Yet the empirical evidence, thus far, is mixed. This paper examines the trading characteristics of bank shares over the period from January 1990 through September 2009. We find that bank share trading exhibits sharply different features before vs. during the crisis. Until mid-2007, large (NYSE-traded) banking firms appear to be no more opaque than a set of control firms, and smaller (NASD-traded) banks are, at most, slightly more opaque. During the crisis, however, both large and small banking firms exhibit a sharp increase in opacity, consistent with the policy interventions implemented at the time. Although portfolio composition is significantly related to market microstructure variables, no specific asset category(s) stand out as particularly important in determining bank opacity.Banks and banking ; Stock market ; Financial crises

    Market evidence on the opaqueness of banking firms' assets.

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    We assess the market microstructure properties of U.S. banking firms' equity, to determine whether they exhibit more or less evidence of asset opaqueness than similar-sized nonbanking firms. The evidence strongly indicates that large banks (traded on NASDAQ) trade much less frequently despite microstructure characteristics. Problem (noncurrent) loans tend to raise the frequency with which the bank's equity trades, as well as the equity's return volatility. The implications for regulatory policy and future market microstructure research are discussed.Bank stocks ; Bank assets

    The informativeness of stochastic frontier and programming frontier efficiency scores: Cost efficiency and other measures of bank holding company performance

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    This paper examines the properties of the X-inefficiencies in U.S. bank holding companies derived from both stochastic and linear programming frontiers. This examination allows the robustness of results across methods to be compared. While we find that calculated programming inefficiency scores are two to three times larger than those estimated using a stochastic frontier, the patterns of the scores across banks and time are similar, and there is a relatively high correlation of the rankings of banks' efficiencies under the two methods. However, when we examine the "informativeness" of the efficiency measured by the two different techniques, we find some large differences. We find evidence that the stochastic frontier scores are more closely related to risk-taking behavior, managerial competence, and bank stock returns. Based on these findings, we conclude that while both methods produce informative efficiency scores, for this data set decision makers should put more weight on the stochastic frontier efficiency estimates.Bank holding companies ; Banks and banking - Costs

    PROVE Endurance Car Front Suspension

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    This document details the collaborative Mechanical Engineering Senior Project with Cal Poly PROVE Lab on PROVE Lab’s Project 2; an electric vehicle designed to travel 1000 miles on a single charge. Logan Simon, Justine Kwan, and Lauren Williams are given the challenge of designing an innovative proof of concept front suspension suspension for this vehicle. After detailed research of new suspension systems, it was determined that the innovative nature could be in the form of unique manufacturing methods, materials use, or mechanical design. At this point in time, this vehicle is a purely conceptual design with no concrete requirements. Therefore engineering specifications were generated based on vehicles of similar size and function, such as PROVE Lab Project 1, Tesla’s Roadster, and the BMW z4. These specification included vehicle weight, speed, vertical travel, system weight, travel speed, and track width. Since this car is aimed to travel 1000 miles on one charge, efficiency is a big concern for the design. From ideation, the three suspension configurations of interest were MacPherson, double wishbone, and multi-link. A decision matrix was created to evaluate these designs based on design requirements, resulting in the selection of the multi-link configuration. However, after further investigation it was decided that a double wishbone configuration would provide nearly equal performance and be much more manageable of a task on the senior project time frame, compared to multi-link. The focus of the project then shifted to innovative manufacturing methods. Carbon fiber was chosen as the material to be used due to its lightweight nature, its accessibility through PROVE lab, and its lack of usage in a suspension system thus far. The upright would provide the most weight savings, so it was designed as a carbon fiber sandwich panel. Computer analysis of the system included SolidWorks FEA, Tsai Wu Failure Analysis, and ANSYS composite analysis to verify Tsai Wu. Four destructive tests were performed to validate the analysis and to determine the number of plies to be used for the final part. With all four tests passing the minimum load requirements with a factor of safety above 1, 16 plies per laminate was chosen and with an additional 8 plies around the edges. The final system proves that a carbon fiber suspension that is structurally sound for maximum loading cases and that cuts weight down to 4.3 pounds is possible. The full non-destructive test will be performed by the PROVE Project 2 team in the future, unassociated with this senior project

    CMS Pixel Telescope Addition to T-980 Bent Crystal Collimation Experiment at the Tevatron

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    An enhancement to the T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has been completed. The enhancement was the installation of a pixel telescope inside the vacuum-sealed beam pipe of the Tevatron. The telescope is comprised of six CMS PSI46 pixel plaquettes, arranged as three stations of horizontal and vertical planes, with the CAPTAN system for data acquisition and control. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure beam profiles produced by bent crystals under various conditions. The telescope electronics inside the beam pipe initially were not adequately shielded from the image current of the passing beams. A new shielding approach was devised and installed, which resolved the problem. The noise issues encountered and the mitigating techniques are presented herein, as well as some preliminary results from the telescope.Comment: 9 pp. 2nd International Conference on Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011: TIPP 2011. 9-14 Jun 2011. Chicago, Illinoi