3,579 research outputs found

    Physics at high Q^2 and p^2_t: Summary of DIS 2000

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    We summarize the experimental and theoretical results presented in the "Physics at the Highest Q^2 and p^2_t" working group at the DIS 2000 Workshop. High Q^2 and p^2_t processes measured at current and future colliders allow to improve our knowledge of Standard Model (SM) physics, by providing precise measurements of the SM parameters and, consequently, consistency checks of the SM. Moreover, they give information on key quantities for the calculation of the SM expectations in a yet unexplored domain, such as the parton densities of the proton or the photon. In addition to these experimental inputs, higher-order calculations are also needed to obtain precise expectations for SM processes, which are a key ingredient for the searches for new phenomena in high Q^2 and p^2_t processes at current and future experiments. The experimental and theoretical status of SM physics at high Q^2 and p^2_t is reviewed in the first part of this summary, with the remaining being dedicated to physics beyond the Standard Model.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures. Typos correcte

    Search for lepton flavor violation via the intense high-energy muon beam

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    A deep inerastic scattering process \mutau is discussed to study lepton flavor violation between muons and tau leptons. In supersymmetric models, the Higgs boson mediated diagrams could be important for this reaction. We find that at a muon energy (EμE_{\mu}) higher than 50 GeV, the predicted cross section significantly increases due to the contribution from sea bb-quarks. The number of produced tau leptons can be O(104)\mathcal{O}(10^4) at EμE_{\mu}= 300 GeV from 102010^{20} muons, whereas O(102)\mathcal{O}(10^2) events are given at Eμ=50E_{\mu}= 50 GeV.Comment: Contribution to the 6th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories & Superbeams(NuFact04), Jul. 26-Aug. 1, 2004, Osaka Univerisity, Osaka, Japan, talk given by S.K., to appear in the Proceedings, 3 pages, 4 figure

    Development of Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar Sensor mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

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    This paper describes the development of a circularly polarized microstrip antenna, as a part of the Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP-SAR) sensor which is currently under developed at the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MRSL) in Chiba University. CP-SAR is a new type of sensor developed for the purpose of remote sensing. With this sensor, lower-noise data/image will be obtained due to the absence of depolarization problems from propagation encounter in linearly polarized synthetic aperture radar. As well the data/images obtained will be investigated as the Axial Ratio Image (ARI), which is a new data that is expected to reveal unique various backscattering characteristics. The sensor will be mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) which will be aimed for fundamental research and applications. The microstrip antenna works in the frequency of 1.27 GHz (L-Band). The microstrip antenna utilized the proximity-coupled method of feeding. Initially, the optimization process of the single patch antenna design involving modifying the microstrip line feed to yield a high gain (above 5 dBi) and low return loss (below -10 dB). A minimum of 10 MHz bandwidth is targeted at below 3 dB of Axial Ratio for the circularly polarized antenna. A planar array from the single patch is formed next. Consideration for the array design is the beam radiation pattern in the azimuth and elevation plane which is specified based on the electrical and mechanical constraints of the UAV CP-SAR system. This research will contribute in the field of radar for remote sensing technology. The potential application is for landcover, disaster monitoring, snow cover, and oceanography mapping. Especially for Indonesia which is the largest archipelago country in the world, the need for surface mapping and monitoring is demanding.  Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, circular polarization, microstrip antenn

    On-site underground background measurements for the KASKA reactor-neutrino experiment

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    On-site underground background measurements were performed for the planned reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment KASKA at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station in Niigata, Japan. A small-diameter boring hole was excavated down to 70m underground level, and a detector unit for γ\gamma-ray and cosmic-muon measurements was placed at various depths to take data. The data were analyzed to obtain abundance of natural radioactive elements in the surrounding soil and rates of cosmic muons that penetrate the overburden. The results will be reflected in the design of the KASKA experiment.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, final version for publication. Table 1 and Fig.5 have change

    Toward accurate CO_2 and CH_4 observations from GOSAT

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    The column-average dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane (X_(CO_2) and X_(CH_4)) are inferred from observations of backscattered sunlight conducted by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Comparing the first year of GOSAT retrievals over land with colocated ground-based observations of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), we find an average difference (bias) of −0.05% and −0.30% for X_(CO_2) and X_(CH_4) with a station-to-station variability (standard deviation of the bias) of 0.37% and 0.26% among the 6 considered TCCON sites. The root-mean square deviation of the bias-corrected satellite retrievals from colocated TCCON observations amounts to 2.8 ppm for X_(CO_2) and 0.015 ppm for X_(CH_4). Without any data averaging, the GOSAT records reproduce general source/sink patterns such as the seasonal cycle of X_(CO_2) suggesting the use of the satellite retrievals for constraining surface fluxes

    Effects of radiation damage caused by proton irradiation on Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs)

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    We have investigated the effects caused by proton-induced radiation damage on Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), a pixelized photon detector developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. The leakage current of irradiated MPPC samples linearly increases with total irradiated doses due to radiation damage, which is not completely recovered even after a year from the irradiation. No significant change has been observed in the gains at least up to 8.0 Gy (9.1×1079.1\times10^7 n/mm2^2 in 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence, Φeq\Phi_{\rm eq}). The device has completely lost its photon-counting capability due to baseline fluctuations and noise pile-up after 21 Gy irradiation (2.4×1082.4\times10^8 n/mm2^2 in Φeq\Phi_{\rm eq}), which might be problematic for some applications, such as ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors. We have found that the pulse-height resolution has been slightly deteriorated after 42 Gy irradiation (4.8×1084.8\times10^8 n/mm2^2 in Φeq\Phi_{\rm eq}), where the measured sample has been illuminated with a few hundred photons. This effect should be considered in the case of energy-measurement applications.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figure

    The impact of spectral resolution on satellite retrieval accuracy of CO_2 and CH_4

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    The Fourier-transform spectrometer on board the Japanese GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) satellite offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of instrument resolution on retrieval accuracy of CO_2 and CH_4. This is relevant to further improve retrieval accuracy and to optimize the cost–benefit ratio of future satellite missions for the remote sensing of greenhouse gases. To address this question, we degrade GOSAT measurements with a spectral resolution of ≈ 0.24 cm^(−1) step by step to a resolution of 1.5 cm^(−1). We examine the results by comparing relative differences at various resolutions, by referring the results to reference values from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), and by calculating and inverting synthetic spectra for which the true CO_2 and CH_4 columns are known. The main impacts of degrading the spectral resolution are reproduced for all approaches based on GOSAT measurements; pure forward model errors identified with simulated measurements are much smaller. For GOSAT spectra, the most notable effect on CO_2 retrieval accuracy is the increase of the standard deviation of retrieval errors from 0.7 to 1.0% when the spectral resolution is reduced by a factor of six. The retrieval biases against atmospheric water abundance and air mass become stronger with decreasing resolution. The error scatter increase for CH_4 columns is less pronounced. The selective degradation of single spectral windows demonstrates that the retrieval accuracy of CO_2 and CH_4 is dominated by the spectral range where the absorption lines of the target molecule are located. For both GOSAT and synthetic measurements, retrieval accuracy decreases with lower spectral resolution for a given signal-to-noise ratio, suggesting increasing interference errors
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