30 research outputs found

    PENGARUH DAYA DAN RASIO BAHAN PADA EKSTRAKSI KAYU CENDANA (Santalum album) DENGAN METODE MICROWAVE HYDRODISTILLATION: OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

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    Sandalwood oil is one of the essential oil called etheric oils or oils fly. To optimize the potential of sandalwood oil, then one attempt to do is improve the distillation method and the operating conditions in order to produce sandalwood oil within a relatively short time. The purpose of this research is to study the process of taking sandalwood oil from sandalwood by using microwave hydrodistillation, learn some influencing parameters such as the effect of the ratio between the raw material is extracted with a solvent and the microwave power is used to the yield of sandalwood oil produced, as well as determine the optimum operating conditions on sandalwood oil extraction process using microwave hydrodistillation method to obtain the maximum yield of sandalwood oil. The method used to determine the optimum conditions of each variable is the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). From these results it can be seen that the empirical model obtained in accordance with the experiment, in which the optimum operating conditions for the extraction of sandalwood oil with microwave hydrodistillation method that yields maximum sandalwood oil is at microwave power of 601.355 W and the ratio between the raw material that is extracted with a solvent of 0.10 g.m

    Microwave-assisted Hydrodistillation for Extraction of Essential Oil from Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) Leaves

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    Conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) methods has been compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in the isolation of essential oils (EOs) from patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) leaves. The MAHD method offers important advantages over HD, viz. shorter extraction time (126 min vs. 417 min for HD); better yields (2.7227 % v/w vs. 2.6132 % v/w for HD); environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing HD than that required for rapid MAHD extraction); and provides a more valuable EO (with high amounts of oxygenated compounds). It also offers the possibility for better reproduction of the natural aroma of the EO from patchouli leaves than that obtained using HD. The extraction of patchouli consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on the experimental kinetic results, a semi-empirical model was fitted. The experimental investigation shows also that the operation time for MAHD in opposite to classical HD, for the same product quantity, was shorter. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwave and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way

    PENGARUH DAYA DAN RASIO BAHAN PADA EKSTRAKSI KAYU CENDANA HYDRODISTILLATION: OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

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    Sandalwood oil is one of the essential oil called etheric oils or oils fly. To optimize the potential of sandalwood oil, then one attempt to do is improve the distillation method and the operating conditions in order to produce sandalwood oil within a relatively short time. The purpose of this research is to study the process of taking sandalwood oil from sandalwood by using microwave hydrodistillation, learn some influencing parameters such as the effect of the ratio between the raw material is extracted with a solvent and the microwave power is used to the yield of sandalwood oil produced, as well as determine the optimum operating conditions on sandalwood oil extraction process using microwave hydrodistillation method to obtain the maximum yield of sandalwood oil. The method used to determine the optimum conditions of each variable is the Response Surface Methodology Keywords: sandalwood oil, microwave hydrodistillation, extraction, response surface methodolog

    PENGARUH DAYA DAN RASIO BAHAN PADA EKSTRAKSI KAYU CENDANA (Santalum album) DENGAN METODE MICROWAVE HYDRODISTILLATION: OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

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    Minyak cendana merupakan salah satu jenis minyak atsiri yang disebut dengan minyak eteris atau minyak terbang. Untuk mengoptimalkan potensi minyak nilam, maka salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah memperbaiki metode destilasi dan kondisi operasi agar dapat menghasilkan minyak nilam dalam waktu yang relatif singkat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari proses pengambilan minyak cendana dari kayu cendana dengan menggunakan metode microwave hydrodistillation, mempelajari beberapa parameter yang berpengaruh seperti pengaruh rasio antara bahan baku yang diekstrak dengan pelarut dan daya microwave yang digunakan terhadap yield minyak cendana yang dihasilkan, serta menentukan kondisi operasi optimum pada proses ekstraksi minyak cendana dengan menggunakan metode microwave hydrodistillation untuk mendapatkan yield minyak cendana yang maksimum. Metode yang digunakan untuk menentukan kondisi optimum dari masing-masing variabel adalah Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh model empiris yang sesuai dengan percobaan, dimana kondisi operasi optimum untuk ekstraksi minyak cendana dengan metode microwave hydrodistillation yang memberikan yield minyak cendana maksimum adalah pada daya microwave 601,355 W dan rasio antara bahan baku yang diekstrak dengan pelarut 0,10 g.mL-1

    SOSIALISASI PENGOLAHAN AIR DENGAN “WATER MEMBRANE FILTRATION” DARI MATA AIR POLAMAN KEBUMEN

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    This community service aims to socialize water treatment technology from the Polaman spring in Polaman, Kebakalan Village, Karanggayam, Kebumen, Central Java, and further enhance the capabilities of UKM partners in processing water into packaged drinking water products and increasing the market value of the water. The Polaman spring is the main water source for the community in that area, but its water quality does not yet meet the safe standards for human consumption. This community service involves the implementation of water treatment technology in several stages. Firstly, an initial survey is conducted to understand the condition of the water source and the needs of the local community. Then, the appropriate water treatment method is chosen based on those conditions and needs. The applied method is filtration technology using microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis, complemented with UV radiation. Subsequently, water treatment is socialized by utilizing the filtration technology. Through this water treatment socialization, it is expected that the water quality from the Polaman spring can be improved and deemed safe for local consumption. Additionally, it is also expected to raise public awareness regarding the importance of safe water treatment and responsible water usage.This community service aims to socialize water treatment technology from the Polaman spring in Polaman, Kebakalan Village, Karanggayam, Kebumen, Central Java, and further enhance the capabilities of UKM partners in processing water into packaged drinking water products and increasing the market value of the water. The Polaman spring is the main water source for the community in that area, but its water quality does not yet meet the safe standards for human consumption. This community service involves the implementation of water treatment technology in several stages. Firstly, an initial survey is conducted to understand the condition of the water source and the needs of the local community. Then, the appropriate water treatment method is chosen based on those conditions and needs. The applied method is filtration technology using microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis, complemented with UV radiation. Subsequently, water treatment is socialized by utilizing the filtration technology. Through this water treatment socialization, it is expected that the water quality from the Polaman spring can be improved and deemed safe for local consumption. Additionally, it is also expected to raise public awareness regarding the importance of safe water treatment and responsible water usage

    Triglycerides Hydrocracking Reaction of Nyamplung Oil with Non-sulfided CoMo/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts

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    The purpose of this research are to study the temperature influence in hydrocracking process of the nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum) using a non-sulfided CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and to develop a simple kinetic model in interpreting the data of hydrocracking products. The experiment was carried out in a pressurized batch reactor operated pressure up 30 bar. The CoMo catalyst supported with γ-Al2O3 was prepared through impregnation method without sulfidation process. The operating temperature varied from 200 to 350 oC. The results show that the non-sulfided CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, nyamplung oil triglycerides can converted into gasoil and gasoline-like hydrocarbons. The triglyceride hydrocracking reaction of nyamplung oil followed a several stages, i.e., hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and cracking. Based on the compounds contained in liquid product, hydrocracking reaction was dominated by decarboxylation. The products obtained in hydrocracking process of nyamplung oil are classified to gasoil (C11-C18) and gasoline (C5-C10).  The triglycerides hydrocracking reaction of nyamplung oil was assumed by following a series reaction mechanism and a simple kinetic model used for determined the kinetics constants. The highest reaction conversion is 99.10% obtained at temperature of 350 °C for 160 minutes reaction time. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 20th October 2017; Revised: 8th September 2017; Accepted: 17th September 2017; Available online: 11st June 2018; Published regularly: 1st August 2018 How to Cite: Rasyid, R., Malik, R., Kusuma, H.S., Roesyadi, A., Mahfud, M. (2018). Triglycerides Hydrocracking Reaction of Nyamplung Oil with Non-sulfided CoMo/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (2): 196-203 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.2.734.196-203

    EKSTRAKSI BAHAN PEWARNA ALAMI DARI KAYU MAHONI (Swietenia mahagoni) MENGGUNAKAN METODE MAE (MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION)

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    Saat ini banyaknya pemakaian zat warna sintetis dapat disebabkan oleh faktor kemudahan memperoleh zat warna sintetis serta faktor produksi dan penggunaan zat warna alam yang belum optimal. Akan tetapi mengingat harga zat pewarna sintetis yang cenderung lebih mahal, potensi pencemaran lingkungan akibat pemakaian zat warna sintetis yang cukup besar, serta adanya kandungan azodyes tertentu dalam zat warna sintetis yang telah dilarang penggunaannya, maka pemakaian zat warna alam perlu dibudayakan. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses ekstraksi bahan pewarna alami dari kayu mahoni dengan metode Microwave Assisted Extraction. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama ekstraksi dan daya microwave yang digunakan terhadap rendemen (yield) pewarna yang diperoleh. Cacahan kayu mahoni sebanyak 10 g diekstraksi dengan menggunakan metode Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) dengan memvariasi daya microwave (100 W dan 380 W) dan waktu ekstraksi (10, 20, 30, 40, dan 50 menit). Filtrat yang diperoleh dipanaskan sampai diperoleh serbuk bahan pewarna. Dari hasil penelitian dapat dilihat bahwa semakin besar daya microwave yang digunakan dan semakin lama waktu yang diperlukan untuk ekstraksi maka pewarna yang dihasilkan akan semakin banyak. Dari hasil pencelupan pewarna dari kayu mahoni, bahan kertas saring dapat dicelup dengan baik dan memberikan warna coklat. Sedangkan dari hasil pengujian ketahanan luntur warna terhadap bahan kertas saring melalui pencucian dan penggosokan terlihat bahwa pencelupan dengan pewarna dari kayu mahoni memiliki ketahanan luntur yang baik. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa kandungan yang terdapat pada kayu mahoni dapat digunakan sebagai zat warna alami

    Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Biodegradable plastic Berbasis Campuran Pati dan Selulosa Dari Limbah Jagung

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    Foodstuffs need proper packaging to prevent spoilage. The use of conventional plastics for packaging has caused environmental problems. It is necessary to develop environmentally friendly packaging as biodegradable plastic. The purpose of this study was to isolate cellulose from corn cobs with three different procedures to determine the best procedure for producing cellulose, as evidenced by the color and results of FTIR analysis. The best cellulose yields are used to make biodegradable plastic films combined with starch and a glycerol plasticizer, sodium montmorillonite nanoclay filler, and clove leaf essential oil. The film that has been made is continued with characterization in the form of analysis of degradation ability, analysis of volatility mass fraction (%), analysis of swelling degree (%), and water solubility (%). The results of this study found that the best cellulose isolation was produced by a procedure 2. The results of the analysis of the degradation ability of the film showed that it was under SNI 7188.7: 2016 with the fastest degradation results within four days with the addition of SMMT. The results of the VMF (%) analysis showed that the presence of EO and SMMT in the composition causes the VMF (%) value to be below. The results of the SD (%) analysis show that the presence of SMMT causes the SD (%) value to increase while the addition of EO causes the SD (%) value to decrease. The results of the WS (%) analysis showed that the presence of SMMT causes the WS (%) to increase, while the addition of EO to the composition variation causes the WS (%) to decreaseBahan makanan membutuhkan kemasan yang tepat untuk mencegah kerusakan. Penggunaan plastik konvensional untuk kemasan telah menimbulkan masalah terhadap lingkungan. Diperlukan suatu pengembangan kemasan yang ramah lingkungan yakni biodegradable plastic. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan isolasi selulosa dari tongkol jagung dengan tiga prosedur yang berbeda untuk menentukan prosedur terbaik penghasil selulosa dibuktikan dari warna dan hasil analisa FTIR. Hasil selulosa terbaik digunakan untuk membuat film biodegradable plastic yang dikombinasikan dengan pati serta campuran plasticizer gliserol, filler sodium montmorillonite nanoclay dan essential oil daun cengkeh. Film yang sudah dibuat dilanjutkan dengan karakterisasi berupa analisa kemampuan degradasi, analisa %volatility mass fraction, analisa %swelling degree dan %water solubility. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa isolasi selulosa terbaik dihasilkan dengan prosedur yang melakukan pengulangan pada bagian bleaching. Hasil analisa kemampuan degradasi film menunjukkan sesuai dengan SNI 7188.7: 2016 dengan hasil degradasi tercepat dalam waktu 4 hari dengan tambahan SMMT. Hasil analisa %VMF menunjukkan dengan adanya EO dan SMMT pada komposisi menyebabkan nilai %VMF rendah. Hasil analisa %SD menunjukkan, dengan adanya kandungan SMMT menyebabkan nilai %SD meningkat sedangkan adanya penambahan EO menyebabkan nilai %SD makin rendah. Hasil analisa %WS menunjukkan, adanya SMMT menyebabkan %WS meningkat sedangkan dengan adanya tambahan EO pada variasi komposisi menyebabkan %WS menurun

    Techno-economic analysis of bio-briquette from cashew nut shell waste

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    The implementation of this research consists of 2 (two) aspects: the making and testing of bio-briquettes called technological aspects and economic analysis called economic aspects. Bio-briquettes is made from cashew nutshell waste obtained from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is followed by pyrolysis, which is carried out in a simple batch type reactor by heating using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The bio-briquettes product has a calorific value of 29.49 MJ/kg, moisture content of 5.3%, ash content of 4.96%, volatile substances content of 17.16%, and carbon content of 72.62%, which meets the universally accepted bio-briquettes standard (SNI 016235-2000), Japanese, English and ISO 17225. The bio-briquettes product is suitable as an energy source. The economic analysis of the cashew nutshell was analyzed to determine its economic feasibility. For the bio-briquettes production capacity in 2,000 tons/year, cashew nut shell-briquettes products can be sold at 1,052,878 USD/year. The total production cost is USD842,304/year. The net profit is of USD147,402/year. The cost of LPG for 2,000 tons/year production capacity is USD954,358/years. The replacement of LPG with cashew seed bio-briquettes tends to help the average household of Muna Regency community to reduce the annual cost by 37.00%. In conclusion, bio-briquettes production's economic feasibility as analyzed from the investment rate is 23.55%, payout time is 3.42 years, and break-even point is 50.09%
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