34 research outputs found

    Protection of Fundamental Rights as an Argument in the Dispute over the Legitimacy of Judicial Review. Selected Issues

    No full text
    amiczny rozw├│j s─ůdowej kontroli konstytucyjno┼Ťci prawa w drugiej po┼éowie XX wieku, znajduje swoje odbicie we wsp├│┼éczesnych teoriach legitymizacji judicial review. Wychodz─ů one poza pierwotn─ů o┼Ť sporu, kt├│r─ů kszta┼étowa┼é tzw. dylemat kontrwi─Ökszo┼Ťciowy i staj─ů si─Ö cz─Östo bardziej zniuansowane. Poza argumentami zwi─ůzanymi z koncepcjami wsp├│┼épracy mi─Ödzyinstytucjonalnej oraz rozliczalno┼Ťci w┼éadzy coraz wi─Ökszego znaczenia nabieraj─ů r├│wnie┼╝ argumenty zwi─ůzane z ochron─ů praw podstawowych i oparte na ich tzw. rights-based theories of judicial review. Celem niniejszego artyku┼éu jest przedstawienie zarysu bogatej problematyki zwi─ůzanej z ochron─ů praw podstawowych rozpatrywan─ů jako argument w sporze o legitymizacj─Ö s─ůdowej kontroli konstytucyjno┼Ťci prawa. W opracowaniu zosta┼éy przedstawione wybrane zagadnienia, kt├│re wp┼éywaj─ů na obecny stan dyskursu dotycz─ůcego legitymizacji s─ůd├│w konstytucyjnych. S─ů to kwestie: poj─Öcia i form s─ůdowej kontroli konstytucyjno┼Ťci; typ├│w argument├│w stosowanych w analizowanym sporze; powi─ůzania zagadnienia ochrony praw podstawowych z okre┼Ťlon─ů koncepcj─ů demokracji oraz kontroli konstytucyjno┼Ťci decyzji ustawodawczych dotycz─ůcych gwarancji tzw. praw pozytywnych.The dynamic development of judicial review of the constitutionality of laws in the second half of the twentieth century is reflected in contemporary theories of judicial review. They go beyond the original axis of the dispute over the legitimacy of judicial review, which was shaped by the counter-majoritarian dilemma, and often become more nuanced. In addition to arguments related to the conceptions of institutional cooperation and accountability function of judicial review, rights-based theories of judicial review take on more and more importance. The aim of this article is to outline a wide range of issues related to the protection of fundamental rights, which protection is considered as an argument in the dispute over the legitimacy of constitutional courts. The study presents selected issues that influence the current discourse on judicial review, which include: types of such judicial review; types of arguments used in the analysed discourse; the link between fundamental rights and various concepts of democracy; and judicial review of legislative decisions concerning positive rights guarantees

    #MeToo and #BlackLives Matter: Conflicting Objectives or Opportunities for Advancement of Shared Priorities?

    No full text
    On April 27, 2021, the Contemporary Challenges in American & Global Law web series considered the question, ÔÇť#MeToo and #BlackLives Matter: Conflicting Objectives or Opportunities for Advancement of Shared Priorities?ÔÇŁ Catholic Law Professor Mary Graw Leary led the programÔÇÖs discussion and comments were made by dr hab. Aleksandra Kustra-Rogatka (IBTSLP 2004), Faculty of Law at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru┼ä, Poland. After introductions made by representatives from both Catholic Law and Jagiellonian University, LearyÔÇöa nationally and internationally recognized expert in criminal law and procedure as well as victimization, exploitation, and human traffickingÔÇöbegan the discussion. To start, Graw Leary shared with the group how this research project came about for her while also providing definitions and brief histories of both the #MeToo and #BlackLivesMatter movements. Graw Leary went on to further explain the emergence of areas of tension that have arisen between the two movements and shared a framework for a path forward which she believes will facilitate advancement for both movements. She concluded, ÔÇťBy reframing these movements through the lens of the crime victims movement, with both individual and systemic characteristics, the complementary nature of these movements emerge much more clearly and both can advance together to achieve justice for all of us.ÔÇŁ Kustra-RogatkaÔÇöwhose scholarship includes focuses on non-governmental organizations dealing with democracy and rule of law, European integration on constitutional law, Polish judicial review, transitional justice, and rule of law in EuropeÔÇöprovided a wonderful international perspective on Graw LearyÔÇÖs work. Kustra-Rogatka commented on the complexity of social movements and the important role of identity politics within the conversation about the two movements. Following their remarks, Kustra-Rogatka posed a series of questions to Graw Leary that covered topics including the relationship of #MeToo and #BlackLivesMatter to earlier social movements, key legal and social components for the success of movements, how to measure that success, and the role intersectionality might play in the future of both movements. With the time that remained both Kustra-Rogatka and Graw Leary responded to questions from the audience moderated by Professor Emerita Leah Wortham, Director of the American Law Program and the LL.M. Program at Catholic Law

    Longitudinal Analysis (1994ÔÇô2020) of Prevalence and Trends of Underweight in Polish Children

    No full text
    Nutritional status disorders are a worldwide problem. Approximately 5.9 million children under the age of five die each year, and 45% of these deaths are related to malnutrition. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of underweight children aged between 6 and 7 years old, living in the Gda┼äsk, Poland, in the years 1994ÔÇô2020. The anthropometric parameters of 67,842 children were analysed. BMI (Body Mass Index) value <5 percentile (pc) was defined as underweight. The BMI value was compared to the WHO (World Health Organization) centile charts and the OLAF (research project PL0080) national reference charts. The prevalence of underweight children in relation to the WHO charts was 1.9%; underweight status was found to be more significant in the group of boys (2.1%) than the group of girls (1.7%) (p < 0.001). According to the OLAF centile charts, the underweight figure among all of the study population was 2.1% and no statistical significance between boys (2.1%) and girls (2.0%) was found (p = 0.670). The occurrence of underweight indviduals in the studied group slightly increased in the years 1994ÔÇô2020. We found a statistically significant increasing linear trend in the analysis of underweight children in our group (p < 0.001), in group of boys (p < 0.001), but not girls (WHO p = 0.603; OLAF p = 0.787). This points to the need to conduct regular screening systems for children and adolescents

    #MeToo and #BlackLives Matter: Conflicting Objectives or Opportunities for Advancement of Shared Priorities?

    No full text
    On April 27, 2021, the Contemporary Challenges in American & Global Law web series considered the question, ÔÇť#MeToo and #BlackLives Matter: Conflicting Objectives or Opportunities for Advancement of Shared Priorities?ÔÇŁ Catholic Law Professor Mary Graw Leary led the programÔÇÖs discussion and comments were made by dr hab. Aleksandra Kustra-Rogatka (IBTSLP 2004), Faculty of Law at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru┼ä, Poland. After introductions made by representatives from both Catholic Law and Jagiellonian University, LearyÔÇöa nationally and internationally recognized expert in criminal law and procedure as well as victimization, exploitation, and human traffickingÔÇöbegan the discussion. To start, Graw Leary shared with the group how this research project came about for her while also providing definitions and brief histories of both the #MeToo and #BlackLivesMatter movements. Graw Leary went on to further explain the emergence of areas of tension that have arisen between the two movements and shared a framework for a path forward which she believes will facilitate advancement for both movements. She concluded, ÔÇťBy reframing these movements through the lens of the crime victims movement, with both individual and systemic characteristics, the complementary nature of these movements emerge much more clearly and both can advance together to achieve justice for all of us.ÔÇŁ Kustra-RogatkaÔÇöwhose scholarship includes focuses on non-governmental organizations dealing with democracy and rule of law, European integration on constitutional law, Polish judicial review, transitional justice, and rule of law in EuropeÔÇöprovided a wonderful international perspective on Graw LearyÔÇÖs work. Kustra-Rogatka commented on the complexity of social movements and the important role of identity politics within the conversation about the two movements. Following their remarks, Kustra-Rogatka posed a series of questions to Graw Leary that covered topics including the relationship of #MeToo and #BlackLivesMatter to earlier social movements, key legal and social components for the success of movements, how to measure that success, and the role intersectionality might play in the future of both movements. With the time that remained both Kustra-Rogatka and Graw Leary responded to questions from the audience moderated by Professor Emerita Leah Wortham, Director of the American Law Program and the LL.M. Program at Catholic Law

    The Constitution as a Bargaining Chip

    Get PDF

    To┼╝samo┼Ť─ç konstytucyjna jako implikowane ograniczenia uprawnie┼ä do zmian konstytucyjnych. Przypadek Polski

    Get PDF
    Ongoing discussions on the need to amend the effective Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997 or to enact a new Fundamental Law have made the question on the limits of permitted modifications of system-related decisions to become increasingly pertinent also in the context of Polish constitutional law. The question posed above naturally raises further questions: the importance of the constitution itself,its role in the legal system, the relationship between constituent power and constituted power, as well as the interdependence between constitutionalism and democracy. These questions are well embedded in theoretical and legal considerations, and the answers tothem depend to a large extent on the adoption of specific initial assumptions.Trwaj─ůce dyskusje na temat potrzeby zmiany obowi─ůzuj─ůcej Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 2 kwietnia 1997 r. b─ůd┼║ uchwalenia nowej ustawy zasadniczej sprawi┼éy, ┼╝e kwestia granic dozwolonych modyfikacji decyzji systemowych staje si─Ö coraz bardziej istotna r├│wnie┼╝ w kontek┼Ťcie polskiego prawa konstytucyjnego. Postawione pytanie badawcze w naturalny spos├│b rodzi kolejne pytania: o znaczenie samej konstytucji i jej roli w systemie prawnym, jej zwi─ůzek z w┼éadz─ů, a tak┼╝e wsp├│┼ézale┼╝no┼Ť─ç mi─Ödzy systemem konstytucjnym a demokracj─ů. Pytaniate s─ů dobrze osadzone w rozwa┼╝aniach teoretycznych i prawnych, a odpowiedzi na nie w du┼╝ej mierze zale┼╝─ů od przyj─Öcia konkretnych za┼éo┼╝e┼ä

    Anthropometric measurements, nutritional status and body composition in children with cystic fibrosis ÔÇô the prospective study

    No full text
    Background: Cystic fibrosis(CF),despite much progress in therapy, remains the disease which affects nutrition. Nutrition is an important prognostic factor of the outcome of the disease. We want to evaluate physical development, nutrition and body composition in CF children. Material and methods: 75 children diagnosed with CF (9 months to 18 years old) were included into the study. 33 healthy children (9 months to 18 years old) constituted the control group. The study consisted of 2 stages. In the first the differences between groups were investigated. The second, took place a year later. At each time point the following measurements were performed: height, body mass, skin fold, arm circumference; BMI, FFM%, FM% and Frisancho index. FFM(fat free mass), FM(fat mass), muscle mass, TBW(total body water) were evaluated by mans of BIA(bioimpedance). Results: CF children were shorter than healthy children. Stunting affected 18,67% of CF patients at first examination and 21,6% a year later. Underweight was diagnosed in 28% of patients at the beginning and in 41.2% a year after. Underweight was the result of both little FM and scarce muscle mass. Conclusions: Many children with cystic fibrosis suffers from short stature and underweight, which progresses within time. FFM decreases with the disease progres

    Constitutionalism and the Political

    No full text
    Charakterystyczny dla wsp├│┼éczesnego dyskursu o konstytucjonalizmie zabieg etykietowania (labelling) doprowadzi┼é do powstania g─Östej d┼╝ungli ÔÇ×przymiotnikowych konstytucjonalizm├│wÔÇŁ, wykraczaj─ůcych poza klasyczny liberalny paradygmat. Tworzone koncepcje zmierzaj─ů do sprecyzowania zmian zachodz─ůcych w prawie publicznym oraz jego otoczeniu politycznym. Dyskurs dotycz─ůcy pojmowania konstytucjonalizmu wpisuje si─Ö w szerszy problem polityczno┼Ťci (the political). Celem niniejszego artyku┼éu jest skonfrontowanie ze sob─ů dw├│ch tytu┼éowych poj─Ö─ç: konstytucjonalizmu i polityczno┼Ťci. W pierwszej cz─Ö┼Ťci tekstu zosta┼é poruszony problem metodologicznych niesp├│jno┼Ťci we wsp├│┼éczesnej analizie koncepcji konstytucjonalizmu. Druga cz─Ö┼Ť─ç porusza kontrowersje wok├│┼é istoty konstytucjonalizmu i ich fundamentalne znaczenie dla teoretycznej legitymizacji koncepcji alternatywnych wobec konstytucjonalizmu prawnego i liberalnego (koncepcje istoty konstytucjonalizmu jako limitacji w┼éadzy, samo(u)stanowienia rozumianego statycznie ÔÇô mit fundacyjny ÔÇô oraz samostanowienia rozumianego dynamicznie). Trzecia cz─Ö┼Ť─ç zosta┼éa po┼Ťwi─Öcona poj─Öciu polityczno┼Ťci jako kryterium podzia┼éu wymienionych koncepcji konstytucjonalizmu.The act of labelling, typical of the contemporary discourse on constitutionalism, has given rise to a thick jungle of ÔÇťadjectival constitutionalismsÔÇŁ, reaching beyond the classic liberal paradigm. The formulated concepts aim at specifying the changes taking place in public law and in its political surrounding. The discourse on the notion of constitutionalism is a piece of a greater puzzle ÔÇô the problem of the political. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two titular notions: constitutionalism and the political. The first part of the paper addresses the problem of methodological inconsistencies in the modern-day analysis of the concept of constitutionalism. The second part raises the controversies around the essence of constitutionalism and their fundamental significance to the theoretical legitimisation of alternatives to the concept of legal and liberal onstitutionalism (the concepts of the essence of constitutionalism as limitation of power, statically understood self-establishment ÔÇô a founding myth, and dynamically understood self-establishment). Part three discusses the notion of the political as a criterion of division of the said concepts of constitutionalism

    Opracowanie nowej polskiej metody analizy przepustowo┼Ťci odcink├│w autostrad i dr├│g ekspresowych

    No full text
    The paper presents development of the new Polish method for performing capacity analysis of basic segments of dual carriageway roads (motorways and expressways). The method is based on field traffic surveys conducted at 30 motorway and expressway sites (class A and S roads) in Poland. Traffic flows, composition and travel times were observed in 15-min intervals at each site using ANPR filming method. These data were used to calibrate a family of traffic speed-flow relationships for different roads, based on Van Aerde model. Free flow speed of traffic and road class are the basic parameters defining the speed-flow relationship and the value of capacity per lane in pcu/h. Traffic density was adopted as the measure of effectiveness for defining the level of service. The paper describes derivation of formulae for estimation of free flow speed for different types of roads as well as determination of equivalent factors for converting vehicles to passenger car units. The method allows us to determine capacity and the level of service based on existing or forecasted traffic flow.Referat przedstawia badania, kt├│re doprowadzi┼éy do powstania nowej polskiej metody analizy przepustowo┼Ťci odcink├│w mi─Ödzyw─Öz┼éowych autostrad i dr├│g ekspresowych. Metoda zosta┼éa opracowana w ramach projektu badawczego RID-I-50 pt. ÔÇ×Nowoczesne metody obliczanie przepustowo┼Ťci i oceny warunk├│w ruchu dla dr├│g poza aglomeracjami miejskimi, w tym dla dr├│g szybkiego ruchuÔÇŁ. Celem projektu by┼éa nowelizacja polskiej metody oceny warunk├│w ruchu i szacowania przepustowo┼Ťci dla dr├│g o ruchu nieprzerywanym. Projekt by┼é wsp├│┼éfinansowany przez Generaln─ů Dyrekcj─Ö Dr├│g Krajowych i Autostrad oraz Narodowe Centrum Bada┼ä i Rozwoju w ramach programu Rozw├│j Innowacji Drogowych. Projekt zosta┼é zrealizowany przez konsorcjum trzech uczelni: Politechniki Krakowskiej, Politechniki Gda┼äskiej i Politechniki Warszawskiej. Opisana w artykule cz─Ö┼Ť─ç projektu dotyczy dr├│g o klasie funkcjonalnej A (autostrady) i S (drogi ekspresowe). Obie klasy to drogi dwujezdniowe o ograniczonym dost─Öpie. Metoda powsta┼éa na podstawie bada┼ä terenowych na 30 odcinkach tych dr├│g. Podczas pomiar├│w ruch by┼é filmowany na obu ko┼äcach odcinka pomiarowego a przy pomocy metody automatycznej identyfikacji numer├│w rejestracyjnych ANPR okre┼Ťlano czas przejazdu odcinka przez poszczeg├│lne pojazdy. Dla ka┼╝dego interwa┼éu 15-minutowego okre┼Ťlano nat─Ö┼╝enie i struktur─Ö ruchu oraz ┼Ťredni─ů pr─Ödko┼Ť─ç
    corecore