364 research outputs found

    The Age Structure of a Population of \u3ci\u3eAedes Provocans\u3c/i\u3e (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southwestern Ontario

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    In a previous paper it was shown that an eastern-Ontario population of the early-spring mosquito Aedes provocans had an atypical age structure: the adult-female population aged rapidly and synchronously, achieving an advanced gonotrophic age in an unusually brief period of time. The present study examined the age structure of Ae. provocans near Waterloo, in south-western Ontario, at a site at which adult emergence occurred over a wider, more variable period and at which the preferred nectar sources for young adults were much less abundant. In Waterloo, the adult-female population aged more slowly and much less synchronously than in eastern Ontario. The role of resources, particularly nectar, in leading to delayed aging, is discussed

    The Use of an Anthrone Reagent to Detect Sugar Meals and Their Persistence in the Mosquito \u3ci\u3eAedes Triseriatus\u3c/i\u3e (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Adults of Aedes triseriatus were fed water, blood, and 10% pure and mixed solutions of glucose, fructose and sucrose. Adults were tested for fructose by the cold-anthrone test 0, 1, 4, 12, and 24 h after feeding. Water-fed males and females and blood-fed females were anthrone negative. Glucose-fed males were anthrone negative but some glucose-fed females were weakly anthrone positive immediately after feeding. Many adults fed a mixture of glucose, fructose and sucrose were anthrone negative 12 h after feeding and all were anthrone negative after 24 h. The interpretation of negatives in the anthrone test is discussed with respect to the dynamics of nectar feeding, metabolic rates and sampling regimes

    Free-Free Spectral Energy Distributions of Hierarchically Clumped HII Regions

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    In an effort to understand unusual power-law spectral slopes observed in some hypercompact HII regions, we consider the radio continuum energy distribution from an ensemble of spherical clumps. An analytic expression for the free-free emission from a single spherical clump is derived. The radio continuum slope (with F_\nu \nu^\alpha) is governed by the population of clump optical depths N(tau), such that (a) at frequencies where all clumps are thick, a continuum slope of +2 is found, (b) at frequencies where all clumps are optically thin, a flattened slope of -0.11 is found, and (c) at intermediate frequencies, a power-law segment of significant bandwidth with slopes between these two limiting values can result. For the ensemble distribution, we adopt a power-law distribution N(tau) tau^{-\gamma}, and find that significant power-law segments in the SED with slopes from +2 to -0.11 result only for a relatively restricted range of γ\gamma values of 1 to 2. Further, a greater range of clump optical depths for this distribution leads to a wider bandwidth over which the intermediate power-law segment exists. The model is applied to the source W49N-B2 with an observed slope of \alphab +0.9, but that may be turning over to become optically thin around 2 mm. An adequate fit is found in which most clumps are optically thin and there is little shadowing of rearward clumps by foreground clumps (i.e., the geometrical covering factor C<<1). The primary insight gained from our study is that in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit for the Planck function that applies for the radio band, it is the distribution in optical depth of the clump population that is solely responsible for setting the continuum shape, with variations in the size and temperature of clumps serving to modulate the level of free-free emission.Comment: Astrophysical Journal, in pres

    New light on the driving mechanism in roAp stars. Part I. Effects of metallicity

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    Observations suggest that a relationship exists between the driving mechanism of roAp star pulsations and the heavy element distribution in these stars. We attempt to study the effects of local and global metallicity variations on the excitation mechanism of high order p-modes in A star models. We developed stellar evolutionary models to describe magnetic A stars with different global metallicity or local metal accumulation profiles. These models were computed with CLES ("Code Li\`egeois d'\'evolution stellaire"), and the stability of our models was assessed with the non-adiabatic oscillation code MAD. Our models reproduce the blue edge of the roAp star instability strip, but generate a red edge hotter than the observed one, regardless of metallicity. Surprisingly, we find that an increase in opacity inside the driving region can produce a lower amount of driving, which we refer to as the "inverse κ\kappa-mechanism".Comment: 18 pages, 23 figures. Accepted for publication in A&

    OPserver: interactive online-computations of opacities and radiative accelerations

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    Codes to compute mean opacities and radiative accelerations for arbitrary chemical mixtures using the Opacity Project recently revised data have been restructured in a client--server architecture and transcribed as a subroutine library. This implementation increases efficiency in stellar modelling where element stratification due to diffusion processes is depth dependent, and thus requires repeated fast opacity reestimates. Three user modes are provided to fit different computing environments, namely a web browser, a local workstation and a distributed grid.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figur

    Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars. I. HERMES/Mercator observations of A- and F-type stars

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    The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207 000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modeling it is equally important to have accurate stellar physical parameters. Therefore, supplementary ground-based data are needed. We report the results of the analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data of A- and F-type stars from the Kepler field, which were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the Mercator telescope. We determined spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for a sample of 117 stars. Hydrogen Balmer, Fe i, and Fe ii lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. The atmospheric parameters obtained were compared with those from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC), confirming that the KIC effective temperatures are underestimated for A stars. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The analysed sample comprises stars with approximately solar chemical abundances, as well as chemically peculiar stars of the Am, Ap, and λ Boo types. The distribution of the projected rotational velocity, vsin i, is typical for A and F stars and ranges from 8 to about 280 km s−1, with a mean of 134 km s−1

    Stationary distributions for diffusions with inert drift

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    Consider reflecting Brownian motion in a bounded domain in Rd{\mathbb R^d} that acquires drift in proportion to the amount of local time spent on the boundary of the domain. We show that the stationary distribution for the joint law of the position of the reflecting Brownian motion and the value of the drift vector has a product form. Moreover, the first component is uniformly distributed on the domain, and the second component has a Gaussian distribution. We also consider more general reflecting diffusions with inert drift as well as processes where the drift is given in terms of the gradient of a potential

    Do ceramic femoral heads reduce taper fretting corrosion in hip arthroplasty? A retrieval study.

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    BACKGROUND: Previous studies regarding modular head-neck taper corrosion were largely based on cobalt chrome (CoCr) alloy femoral heads. Less is known about head-neck taper corrosion with ceramic femoral heads. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked (1) whether ceramic heads resulted in less taper corrosion than CoCr heads; (2) what device and patient factors influence taper fretting corrosion; and (3) whether the mechanism of taper fretting corrosion in ceramic heads differs from that in CoCr heads. METHODS: One hundred femoral head-stem pairs were analyzed for evidence of fretting and corrosion using a visual scoring technique based on the severity and extent of fretting and corrosion damage observed at the taper. A matched cohort design was used in which 50 ceramic head-stem pairs were matched with 50 CoCr head-stem pairs based on implantation time, lateral offset, stem design, and flexural rigidity. RESULTS: Fretting and corrosion scores were lower for the stems in the ceramic head cohort (p=0.03). Stem alloy (p=0.004) and lower stem flexural rigidity (Spearman\u27s rho=-0.32, p=0.02) predicted stem fretting and corrosion damage in the ceramic head cohort but not in the metal head cohort. The mechanism of mechanically assisted crevice corrosion was similar in both cohorts although in the case of ceramic femoral heads, only one of the two surfaces (the male metal taper) engaged in the oxide abrasion and repassivation process. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that by using a ceramic femoral head, CoCr fretting and corrosion from the modular head-neck taper may be mitigated but not eliminated. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings of this study support further study of the role of ceramic heads in potentially reducing femoral taper corrosion

    The surface composition of six newly discovered chemically peculiar stars. Comparison to the HgMn stars μ\mu Lep and β\beta Scl and the superficially normal B star ν\nu Cap

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    We report on a detailed abundance study of six bright, mostly southern, slowly rotating late B stars: HD~1279 (B8III), HD~99803 (B9V), HD~123445 (B9V), HD~147550 (B9V), HD~171961 (B8III) and HD~202671 (B5II/III), hitherto reported as normal stars. We compare them to the two classical HgMn stars μ\mu Lep and β\beta Scl and to the superficially normal star, ν\nu Cap. In the spectra of the six stars, the \ion{Hg}{2} line at 3984 \AA\ line is clearly seen and numerous lines of P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ga, Sr, Y, and Zr appear to be strong absorbers. A comparison of newly acquired and archival spectra of these objects with a grid of synthetic spectra for selected unblended lines reveals large overabundances of P, Ti, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pt and Hg and underabundances of He, Mg, Sc and Ni. The effective temperatures, surface gravities, low projected rotational velocities and the peculiar abundance patterns of the six investigated stars show that they are new chemically peculiar stars, mostly new HgMn stars, and are reclassified as such. The evolutionary status of these stars has been inferred and their ages and masses estimated. The two most massive objects, HD~1279 and HD~202671, might have evolved away from the main-sequence recently, the other stars are main-sequence objects. HD~99803A is a sharp lined HgMn star with grazing eclipses; from TESS and MASCARA photometry we determine an orbital period of Porb=26.12022±0.00004P_{\rm orb} = 26.12022 \pm 0.00004\,d.Comment: 54 pages, accepted in The Astronomical Journal. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1908.0502

    The social cognition of medical knowledge, with special reference to childhood epilepsy

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    This paper arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating different types of medical knowledge to their communicative context; the types of medical knowledge that are constituted in the three different text types analysed; and the relationship between these different types of medical knowledge and the discursive features of each text type. The paper argues that there is a cognitive dimension to the human experience of understanding and talking about one specialized from of medical knowledge. It recommends that texts be studied in medical communication courses not just in terms of their discrete formal features but also critically, in terms of the knowledge which they produce, transmit and reproduce
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