631 research outputs found

    Molecular diagnostic tools for plant health protection

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    IITA R4D Review

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    Quantitative trait loci mapping for resistance to maize streak virus in F2: 3 population of tropical maize

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    Open Access Article; Published online: 01 Feb 2020Maize streak virus (MSV) continues to be a major biotic constraint for maize production throughout Africa. Concerning the quantitative nature of inheritance of resistance to MSV disease (MSVD), we sought to identify new loci for MSV resistance in maize using F2:3 population. The mapping population was artificially inoculated with viruliferous leafhoppers under screenhouse and evaluated for MSVD resistance. Using 948 DArT markers, we identified 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with different components of MSVD resistance accounting for 3.1–21.4% of the phenotypic variance, suggesting that a total of eleven genomic regions covering chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 are probably required for MSVD resistance. Two new genomic regions on chromosome 4 revealed the occurrence of co-localized QTLs for different parameters associated with MSVD resistance. Moreover, the consistent appearance of QTL on chromosome 7 for MSVD resistance is illustrating the need for fine-mapping of this locus. In conclusion, these QTLs could provide additional source for breeders to develop MSV resistance

    Virus detection in banana: a laboratory manual

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    First report of mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium tupiense in Senegal

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    Article PurchasedMango (Mangifera indica L.) is an economically important export crop for Senegal, producing about 100,000 tons of fruit annually. In April 2009, severe outbreaks of a new disorder occurred in mango orchards in the southeastern part of Casamance. Diseased plants showed abnormal growth of vegetative shoots with short thickened internodes and malformed inflorescence with short leaves interspersed among thickened sterile flowers that aborted early. These symptoms resembled those caused by mango malformation disease (4). To identify the causal agent, floral and vegetative samples from symptomatic mango plants were collected from Kolda district (12°53' N, 14°56' W). Malformed tissues were cut into 4-mm2 pieces, surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 2 min, dried, and plated on the Fusarium isolation medium Peptone PCNB Agar (PPA) (2). Fungal growth with Fusarium morphology were transferred on PPA and further purified on water agar as single spore isolates. Cultures were identified on the basis of spore characters on carnation leaf agar and colony morphology on PDA (2). Two isolates (I4 and I17) were similar to F. mangiferae/F. sterilihyphosum/F. tupiense complex (3). Macroconidia were slender, slightly falcate, three- to five-septate, 18.5 to 27.7 × 1.1 to 2.3 μm with slightly curved apical cell produced on cream to orange sporodochia. Microconidia were single-celled, oval, 3.7 to 13.6 × 0.75 to 1.1 μm produced on mono- and polyphialides in false heads. Chlamydospores were absent. To confirm the identity, genomic DNA was isolated from pure cultures of I4 and I17, used for amplification of portion of translation elongation factor (TEF-1α). Amplified products (241 bp) were purified and sequenced in both directions (GenBank Accession Nos. JX272929 and JX272930). A BLASTn search revealed 100% sequence identity with F. tupiense (DQ452860), 99% identity with F. mangiferae (HM135531) and F. sterilihyphosum (DQ452858) from Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the Clustalw alignment of TEF-1α sequences clustered I4 and I17 isolates with F. tupiense (3). To confirm Koch's postulates, 2-year-old healthy mango seedlings var. Keitt and Kent (12 plants each) were inoculated by placing 20 μl conidial suspension (5 × 107 conidia ml–1) on micro-wounds created in apical and lateral buds. Inoculated buds were covered with filter paper soaked in the same spore suspension (1). Seedlings inoculated similarly with sterile distilled water served as control. Seven months after the inoculation, typical malformation symptoms were observed on vegetative parts on all inoculated plants, but not on control plants. F. tupiense was reisolated from symptomatic shoots of inoculated plants. Based on the morphological characteristics, sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test, the pathogen of mango malformation in Senegal was identified as F. tupiense (3). To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed record in Senegal of mango malformation caused by F. tupiense. This disease is a serious threat to mango production and trade of Senegal. Urgent actions are necessary to stop this emerging epidemic that can spread to other countries in West Africa

    Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir)

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    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria?the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ? 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ? 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ? 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers

    A study of the M235T variant of the angiotensinogen gene and hypertension in a sample population of Calabar and Uyo, Nigeria

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    Open Access JournalA common molecular variant of the angiotensinogen gene had been reported to predispose some ethnic groups to hypertension. This case–control study was designed to determine the frequency and association of the angiotensinogen M235T allele with hypertension in residents of Calabar and Uyo cities, south–south Nigeria. The study involved 1308 subjects, 612 patients and 696 controls. The M235T variant was investigated using an allele specific polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion to determine allele frequencies. Hypertensinogenic factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits were assessed using questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. The M235T allele frequency was high (0.94 for hypertensives and 0.96 for controls) though it was not associated with hypertension status. The odds ratio for hypertension was 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.39–1.06) there were no significant differences between the genotype frequency of hypertensives and controls. By multiple regression, Hypertension was observed to be associated with age and was a predictor for systolic blood pressure in both patient r2 = 0.359; p < 0.05 and control groups r2 = 0.26. Age and body mass index were predictors for diastolic blood pressure in the control group, r2 = 0.28. Although the frequency of the M235T variant was high, it was not a significant risk factor for hypertension in the study population

    Incidence and distribution of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in Cote d'Ivoire

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    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) is amajor threat to production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Côte d’Ivoire. A survey was conducted in themajor production zones in Côte d’Ivoire to assess the incidence, severity, and distribution of cassava viraldiseases. At each survey site, up to ten plants were assessed for symptom severity; incidence and samples weretaken for virus testing. Techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for the detection ofcassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) in the sampled leaves. Incidence of CMD varied from 0 to 100% andsymptom severity from 1 to 5. Incidence differed significantly between the various agro-ecological zones(P<0.001), but severity was the same in those zones. Out of the 335 samples tested, African cassava mosaic virus(ACMV) was detected in 43.3%, East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) in 5.7%, and bothACMV and EACMCV in 31.3%; 19.7% of the samples analyzed were negative to all the viruses tested. None of thesamples was tested positive to the East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-Ug). These resultssuggest high incidence of CMD in the cassava production zones in Côte d’lvoire and underscores a need forimplementation of control measures including phytosanitary measures with utilization of CMD-free materials forplanting and adoption of resistant varieties

    First report of soybean witchesbroom disease caused by Group 16SrII phytoplasma in soybean in Malawi and Mozambique

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    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important grain legume cultivated on approximately 1.24 million ha in Africa (1). Malawi ranks fourth in area of production in Africa, with 75,000 ha in 2009 (1). Soybean is also gaining importance in Mozambique and several other southern African countries due to diversification programs. During a field survey conducted in March 2010, soybean plants with phyllody and witches'-broom disorders typical of phytoplasma infection were observed in three of five fields surveyed in Lilongwe (Chitedze Research Station) and Salima (Channa, Chitala) districts in Malawi and three of four fields surveyed in Zambezia Province in Mozambique. Symptoms consisted of shoot proliferation, reduced leaflets, shortened internodes, proliferated auxiliary shoots producing witches'-brooms, virescence, and phyllody. Incidence of symptomatic plants was <1% in Malawi and 10 to 15% in Mozambique. Yield loss was 100% in affected plants. Five leaf samples each from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected from six fields; total genomic DNAs were isolated and used as templates in PCR using phytoplasma-universal primer pair P1 and P7 for 16S-23S ribosomal RNA encoding region (3). PCR amplicons (1,709 bp) were produced from only templates derived from symptomatic plants. Amplicons from a symptomatic plant each from Malawi (Channa, Salima District) and Mozambique (Mutequelse, Zambezia Province) were directly sequenced in both directions and submitted to the GenBank (Accession Nos. HQ840717 and HQ845208). Nucleotide sequences of the two African soybean witches'-broom (SoyWB) phytoplasma strains were 100% identical. The virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern derived from these sequences using iPhyClassifier software (4) was similar to the reference pattern of the 16Sr group II, subgroup C (cactus phytoplasma, Accession No. AJ293216), with a pattern similarity coefficient of 0.99. A BLASTn search revealed that the African SoyWB phytoplasma sequences had a nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with those of soybean phytoplasma from Thailand (Accession No. EF193353), cactus phytoplasma from China (Accession No. EU099561), and several other members of 16SrII group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the clustering of these strains with members of 16SrII group. In 1984, the occurrence of phyllody and witches'-broom symptoms in soybean in Mozambique was reported (2), however, no comprehensive details on the pathogen are available. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phyllody and witches'-broom disease in soybean in Malawi and the first molecular evidence of association of a 16SrII-C group ‘Candidatus phytoplasma’ with the disease in Malawi and Mozambique. Phyllody and witches'-broom is a destructive disease, and its widespread occurrence can adversely affect soybean production in sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of alternative hosts and vector species would improve our understanding of the disease's epidemiology and contribute to development of appropriate tactics to prevent escalation of this problem into a major disease

    First report of outbreaks of the fall armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new alien invasive pest in West and Central Africa

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    Article purchasedThe fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tome suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed
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