153 research outputs found

    Strengthening the understanding of south partnerships and rigor in addressing social determinants of child and adolescent mental health

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    The Journal of Adolescent Health\u27s current supplement presents the work of a highly active team of researchers who are focusing on developing a strong body of evidence around child and adolescent mental health in Sub-Saharan Africa. The supplement lays out scholarship generated through years of partnership between researchers based in the United States—some of whom are from Sub-Saharan context, specifically Uganda—in connecting applied social work, community mental health for children and adolescents, and family development. The work comprises a series of articles embedded within several National Institutes of Health–funded grants by authors based in the United States in partnership with various academic and nongovernmental organizations in Uganda and Ghana

    Mental health service preferences of patients and providers: a scoping review of conjoint analysis and discrete choice experiments from global public health literature over the last 20 years (1999–2019)

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    Abstract: Background: In designing, adapting, and integrating mental health interventions, it is pertinent to understand patients’ needs and their own perceptions and values in receiving care. Conjoint analysis (CA) and discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are survey-based preference-elicitation approaches that, when applied to healthcare settings, offer opportunities to quantify and rank the healthcare-related choices of patients, providers, and other stakeholders. However, a knowledge gap exists in characterizing the extent to which DCEs/CA have been used in designing mental health services for patients and providers. Methods: We performed a scoping review from the past 20 years (2009–2019) to identify and describe applications of conjoint analysis and discrete choice experiments. We searched the following electronic databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science to identify stakehold,er preferences for mental health services using Mesh terms. Studies were categorized according to pertaining to patients, providers and parents or caregivers. Results: Among the 30 studies we reviewed, most were published after 2010 (24/30, 80%), the majority were conducted in the United States (11/30, 37%) or Canada (10/30, 33%), and all were conducted in high-income settings. Studies more frequently elicited preferences from patients or potential patients (21/30, 70%) as opposed to providers. About half of the studies used CA while the others utilized DCEs. Nearly half of the studies sought preferences for mental health services in general (14/30, 47%) while a quarter specifically evaluated preferences for unipolar depression services (8/30, 27%). Most of the studies sought stakeholder preferences for attributes of mental health care and treatment services (17/30, 57%)

    Impact of climate events, pollution, and green spaces on mental health: an umbrella review of meta-analyses

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    Climate change may affect mental health. We conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses examining the association between mental health and climate events related to climate change, pollution and green spaces. We searched major bibliographic databases and included meta-analyses with at least five primary studies. Results were summarized narratively. We included 24 meta-analyses on mental health and climate events (n = 13), pollution (n = 11), and green spaces (n = 2) (two meta-analyses provided data on two categories). The quality was suboptimal. According to AMSTAR-2, the overall confidence in the results was high for none of the studies, for three it was moderate, and for the other studies the confidence was low to critically low. The meta-analyses on climate events suggested an increased prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety associated with the exposure to various types of climate events, although the effect sizes differed considerably across study and not all were significant. The meta-analyses on pollution suggested that there may be a small but significant association between PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO and mental health, especially depression and suicide, as well as autism spectrum disorders after exposure during pregnancy, but the resulting effect sizes varied considerably. Serious methodological flaws make it difficult to draw credible conclusions. We found reasonable evidence for an association between climate events and mental health and some evidence for an association between pollution and mental disorders. More high-quality research is needed to verify these associations

    Depression and its associated factors: perceived stress, social support, substance use and related sociodemographic risk factors in medical school residents in Nairobi, Kenya

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    Abstract: Background: Little data exists regarding depression and its associated factors in medical residents and doctors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Residents are at high risk of developing depression owing to the stressful nature of their medical practice and academic training. Depression in medical residents leads to decreased clinical efficiency, and poor academic performance; it can also lead to substance abuse and suicide. Our primary aim was to measure depression prevalence among medical residents in Kenya’s largest national teaching and referral hospital. Secondary aims were to describe how depression was associated with perceived stress, perceived social support, substance use, and educational environment. Methods: We sampled 338 residents belonging to 8 different specialties using self administered questionnaires in this cross-sectional survey between October 2019 and February 2020. Questionnaires included: sociodemographics, the Centres for Epidemiology Depression Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to assess for risk factors for depression. Results: Mean participant age was 31.8 years and 53.4% were males. Most residents (70.4%) reported no to mild depressive symptoms, 12.7% had moderate, and 16.9% had severe depressive symptoms. Most residents had high social support (71.8%) and moderate stress (61.6%). The educational environment was rated as more positive than negative by 46.3% of residents. Bivariate analyses revealed significant correlations between depressive symptoms, perceived stress, substance use, perceived social support, and educational environment. Multivariate analysis showed that depression was strongly associated with: fewer hours of sleep (β = − 0.683, p = 0.002), high perceived stress (β = 0.709, p \u3c 0.001) and low perceived social support (β = − 2.19, p \u3c 0.001)
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