39 research outputs found

    Rising incidence of hip fractures in Sindhudurg west coast of Maharashtra, South India (2000 to 2011)

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    Background: The incidence of hip fractures in Sindhudurg, west coast of Maharashtra has been reported in relation to age and gender.Methods: Using the medical records and X-ray registers from May 2000 to October 2011, all patients of proximal femoral fractures were recorded and included in this study. The data was cross checked doubly with details of indoor case papers against ward admission and operation theatre registers, were found to be congruent after verifying the names of patients.Results: The total male incidence was bimodal with moderate peaks at 31 to 50 years and very high at 51 to 70 years. The female incidence with peaks at 41 to 60 years with regular steady increase up to 80 years. Males of 31 to 70 years 2.5 times more likely to sustain a fracture (95% CI 2.3 to 2.8) than females. Females between 40 to 60 years 2.8 times more likely to sustain fracture than males (95% CI 2.5 to 3.0). The trend was stable from year to year. This high increase in hip fractures in men of 51 to 70 years incidence documented osteoporotic fractures in contrast with too much emphasis on the importance of menopause in hip fractures.Conclusions: Despite wide variations in age specific hip fracture rates over a decade, reasons for differences are not clear. From 2000 to 2011, the hip fractures in district hospital increased by a factor of 6.6%, 14.34% in both the genders above the age of 41 years in parallel with hospital admissions.

    Redundancy in Face Image Recognition

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    Many researchers paid attention to formulate different algorithms to faces and its classes for accurate classification but, did not paid attention to the fact that redundancy may exists even though faces with different classes are effectively classified. Researchers working on SVD and its extended algorithm versions which were based on face matrix decomposition for face recognition concluded that they are the best algorithms for classification of occluded faces. The problem with these designed algorithms is that there is every likely hood of having more than one value of amplification factor along with classified faces. It is pointed out by researchers that every face will be having one and only one amplification factor and its classified face. This factor will definitely add to the already existing facial recognition problems and challenges. Here is a paper which shows the redundancy in recognition which will be treated as an added problem and challenge for facial recognition

    Keyword Specific Cloud Computing

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    It is now a known fact that Internet of things (Iot) and Cloud computing will be the way ahead. Store and transmit of massive amounts of data is on the cards in the coming years which will profoundly affect other areas of everyday life in the next generation. Cloud and Iot are merged together is seen as an enabler of a large number of application scenarios. As an example at the start of 2016 automakers are building a driverless taxi service. Keeping this in mind a novel idea of keyword based Cloud Computing is brought about in this paper which gives out entire data to the user if the user types the keyword of the required entity

    12-Lipoxygenase governs the innate immune pathogenesis of islet inflammation and autoimmune diabetes

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    Macrophages and related myeloid cells are innate immune cells that participate in the early islet inflammation of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) catalyzes the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids, but its role and mechanisms in myeloid cells in the pathogenesis of islet inflammation have not been elucidated. Leveraging a model of islet inflammation in zebrafish, we show here that macrophages contribute significantly to the loss of β cells and the subsequent development of hyperglycemia. The depletion or inhibition of 12-LOX in this model resulted in reduced macrophage infiltration into islets and the preservation of β cell mass. In NOD mice, the deletion of the gene encoding 12-LOX in the myeloid lineage resulted in reduced insulitis with reductions in proinflammatory macrophages, a suppressed T cell response, preserved β cell mass, and almost complete protection from the development of T1D. 12-LOX depletion caused a defect in myeloid cell migration, a function required for immune surveillance and tissue injury responses. This effect on migration resulted from the loss of the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Transgenic expression of the gene encoding CXCR3 rescued the migratory defect in zebrafish 12-LOX morphants. Taken together, our results reveal a formative role for innate immune cells in the early pathogenesis of T1D and identify 12-LOX as an enzyme required to promote their prodiabetogenic phenotype in the context of autoimmunity

    Tissue Microenvironments Define and Get Reinforced by Macrophage Phenotypes in Homeostasis or during Inflammation, Repair and Fibrosis

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    Current macrophage phenotype classifications are based on distinct in vitro culture conditions that do not adequately mirror complex tissue environments. In vivo monocyte progenitors populate all tissues for immune surveillance which supports the maintenance of homeostasis as well as regaining homeostasis after injury. Here we propose to classify macrophage phenotypes according to prototypical tissue environments, e.g. as they occur during homeostasis as well as during the different phases of (dermal) wound healing. In tissue necrosis and/or infection, damage- and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns induce proinflammatory macrophages by Toll-like receptors or inflammasomes. Such classically activated macrophages contribute to further tissue inflammation and damage. Apoptotic cells and antiinflammatory cytokines dominate in postinflammatory tissues which induce macrophages to produce more antiinflammatory mediators. Similarly, tumor-associated macrophages also confer immunosuppression in tumor stroma. Insufficient parenchymal healing despite abundant growth factors pushes macrophages to gain a profibrotic phenotype and promote fibrocyte recruitment which both enforce tissue scarring. Ischemic scars are largely devoid of cytokines and growth factors so that fibrolytic macrophages that predominantly secrete proteases digest the excess extracellular matrix. Together, macrophages stabilize their surrounding tissue microenvironments by adapting different phenotypes as feed-forward mechanisms to maintain tissue homeostasis or regain it following injury. Furthermore, macrophage heterogeneity in healthy or injured tissues mirrors spatial and temporal differences in microenvironments during the various stages of tissue injury and repair. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Base

    The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria is presented here. The first publication examined the DVS from the Americas, with the second covering those species present in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Here we discuss the 19 DVS of the Asian-Pacific region. This region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence of a high number of species complexes and suspected species complexes, and behavioural plasticity of many of these major vectors, adds a level of entomological complexity not comparable elsewhere globally. To try and untangle the intricacy of the vectors of this region and to increase the effectiveness of vector control interventions, an understanding of the contemporary distribution of each species, combined with a synthesis of the current knowledge of their behaviour and ecology is needed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Expert opinion (EO) range maps, created with the most up-to-date expert knowledge of each DVS distribution, were combined with a contemporary database of occurrence data and a suite of open access, environmental and climatic variables. Using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) modelling method, distribution maps of each DVS were produced. The occurrence data were abstracted from the formal, published literature, plus other relevant sources, resulting in the collation of DVS occurrence at 10116 locations across 31 countries, of which 8853 were successfully geo-referenced and 7430 were resolved to spatial areas that could be included in the BRT model. A detailed summary of the information on the bionomics of each species and species complex is also presented.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This article concludes a project aimed to establish the contemporary global distribution of the DVS of malaria. The three articles produced are intended as a detailed reference for scientists continuing research into the aspects of taxonomy, biology and ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps.</p

    Psychological autopsy and necropsy of an unusual case of suicide by intravenous toluene

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    Toluene (methylbenzene; volatile hydrocarbon) is an industrial solvent that causes major injury to the lungs; the organ being the first capillary bed encountered. We report an unusual case of suicide by a 24-year-old male, paramedical professional, with fatal outcome within 16 h of intentional, intravenous self-administration of toluene, with clinical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Psychological autopsy revealed severe depressive disorder and solvent (inhalant) abuse, with marital disharmony as the precipitating stressor for suicide. Necropsy revealed diffuse congestion of internal organs like lungs and liver, epicardial petechial hemorrhages, and gastric hemorrhages. Treatment of toluene poisoning includes supportive care as no specific antidote is available. Early and aggressive management may be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary sequelae. Relevant literature of toluene poisoning was identified via PubMed, PubChem, ToxNet, Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Embase, and PsycINFO. To our knowledge, this is the first case of suicide by intravenous administration of toluene in the literature

    dc Resistivity behaviour in fly-ash

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    367-369<span style="font-size:14.0pt;line-height: 115%;font-family:" times="" new="" roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"times="" roman";="" color:black;mso-ansi-language:en-in;mso-fareast-language:en-in;mso-bidi-language:="" hi"="" lang="EN-IN">The fly-ash (FA) sample has been collected from a 840 MW thermal power station, Raichur (Karnataka), with a daily FA production of 7000 tons. From the available elemental data analysis, further investigations on the electrical resistivity behaviour of Circularly shaped disc of FA have been carried out in the temperature range 100-600°C. It has been observed that resistivity is gradually decreasing with the increase of temperature. The electrical conductivity and activation energies have been estimated. The possible conductivity mechanism is discussed .</span
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