58 research outputs found

    Leaf Mining Insects and Their Parasitoids in the Old-Growth Forest of the Huron Mountains

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    Leaf mining insects in an old-growth forest along the south central shore of Lake Superior in Michigan are documented. We present the results of a 13-year survey of leaf mining species, larval hosts, seasonal occurrence, and parasitoids, as well as report biological observations. Representative larvae, mines, adults, and parasitoids were preserved. Among the larval host associations, 15 are reported as new. Additionally, 42 parasitoid taxa were identified resulting in six first reports from the New World and 32 new host associations. Two undescribed species (Gelechiidae and Figitidae) discovered through this research were described in earlier publications

    Method and apparatus for detecting flaws and defects in heat seals

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    Flaws and defects in heat seals formed between sheets of translucent film are identified by optically examining consecutive lateral sections of the seal along the seal length. Each lateral seal section is illuminated and an optical sensor array detects the intensity of light transmitted through the seal section for the purpose of detecting and locating edges in the heat seal. A line profile for each consecutive seal section is derived having an amplitude proportional to the change in light intensity across the seal section. Instances in the derived line profile where the amplitude is greater than a threshold level indicate the detection of a seal edge. The detected edges in each derived line profile are then compared to a preset profile edge standard to identify the existence of a flaw or defect

    Leaf Mining Insects and Their Parasitoids in the Old-Growth Forest of the Huron Mountains

    Get PDF
    Leaf mining insects in an old-growth forest along the south central shore of Lake Superior in Michigan are documented. We present the results of a 13-year survey of leaf mining species, larval hosts, seasonal occurrence, and parasitoids, as well as report biological observations. Representative larvae, mines, adults, and parasitoids were preserved. Among the larval host associations, 15 are reported as new. Additionally, 42 parasitoid taxa were identified resulting in six first reports from the New World and 32 new host associations. Two undescribed species (Gelechiidae and Figitidae) discovered through this research were described in earlier publications

    Tackling the Monday Morning Quarterback: Applications of Hindsight Bias in Decision-Making Settings

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    Extant research has focused largely on what causes hindsight distortion. In contrast, this work examines applied aspects related to the bias in decision-making environments. A conceptual framework is provided and recent real‚Äďworld examples are presented to outline how decision makers‚ÄĒand those who observe them‚ÄĒshow hindsight effects. Then, both negative and positive consequences of the bias are outlined. Strategies are presented to reduce negative effects that occur when decision makers show hindsight distortion. Finally, because it is often not possible to avoid or to correct others\u27 hindsight‚Äďtainted evaluations, suggestions for coping with the bias are discussed

    The androgen receptor gene CAG repeat in relation to 4-year changes in androgen-sensitive endpoints in community-dwelling older European men

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    Context: The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene exon 1 CAG repeat length has been proposed to be a determinant of between-individual variations in androgen action in target tissues, which might regulate phenotypic differences of human ageing. However, findings on its phenotypic effects are inconclusive.Objective: To assess whether the AR CAG repeat length is associated with longitudinal changes in endpoints which are influenced by testosterone (T) levels in middle-aged and elderly European men.Design: Multinational European observational prospective cohort studyParticipants: 1887 men (mean¬Īsd age: 63¬Ī11 years; median follow-up: 4.3 years) from centres of 8 European countries comprised the analysis sample after exclusion of those with diagnosed diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis.Main outcome measures: Longitudinal associations between the AR CAG repeat and changes in androgen-sensitive endpoints (ASEs) and medical conditions were assessed using regression analysis adjusting for age and centre. The AR CAG repeat length was treated both as a continuous and categorical (6-20; 21-23; 24-39 repeats) predictor. Additional analysis investigated whether results were independent of baseline T or oestradiol (E2) levels.Results: The AR CAG repeat, when used as a continuous or categorical predictor, was not associated with longitudinal changes in ASEs or medical conditions after adjustments. These results were independent of T and E2 levels.Conclusion: Within a 4-year timeframe, variations in the AR CAG repeat do not contribute to the rate of phenotypic ageing, over and above, that, which might be associated with the age-related decline in T levels

    A hymenopterists' guide to the hymenoptera anatomy ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

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    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These resourc¬¨es are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this paper is a direct response to questions that arose from project workshops. In a concerted attempt to surmount barriers of understanding, especially regarding the format, utility, and development of the HAO, we discuss the roles of homology, ‚Äúpreferred terms‚ÄĚ, and ‚Äústructural equivalency‚ÄĚ. We also outline the use of Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs) and posit that they are a key element necessary for increasing the objectivity and repeatability of science that references hymenopteran anatomy. Pragmatically, we detail a mechanism (the ‚ÄúURI table‚ÄĚ) by which authors can use URIs to link their published text to the HAO, and we describe an associated tool (the ‚ÄúAnalyzer‚ÄĚ) to derive these tables. These tools, and others, are available through the HAO Portal website (http://portal.hymao.org). We conclude by discussing the future of the HAO with respect to digital publication, cross-taxon ontology alignment, the advent of semantic phenotypes, and community-based curation.Katja C. Seltmann... Andrew D. Austin... John T. Jennings... et al

    Erratum to: 36th International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine

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    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13054-016-1208-6.]

    A century of trends in adult human height

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    Convalescent plasma in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised controlled, open-label, platform trial