38 research outputs found

    Multiplicity distribution and source deformation in full-overlap U+U collisions

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    We present a full Monte Carlo simulation of the multiplicity and eccentricity distributions in U+U collisions at sqrt(s) = 200 A GeV. While unavoidable trigger inefficiencies in selecting full-overlap U+U collisions cause significant modifications of the multiplicity distribution shown in PRL94, 132301 (2005), a selection of source eccentricities by cutting the multiplicity distribution is still possible.Comment: 4 pages. Corrected error in Eq. (4), recalculated Figs. 2-4 and added Fig. 5 and more discussion. As a result of correcting this error, the spectator cut for a useful definition of "full-overlap" collisions had to be tightened by a factor 10, to the 0.5% of events with the lowest number of spectator

    LSST Science Book, Version 2.0

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    A survey that can cover the sky in optical bands over wide fields to faint magnitudes with a fast cadence will enable many of the exciting science opportunities of the next decade. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will have an effective aperture of 6.7 meters and an imaging camera with field of view of 9.6 deg^2, and will be devoted to a ten-year imaging survey over 20,000 deg^2 south of +15 deg. Each pointing will be imaged 2000 times with fifteen second exposures in six broad bands from 0.35 to 1.1 microns, to a total point-source depth of r~27.5. The LSST Science Book describes the basic parameters of the LSST hardware, software, and observing plans. The book discusses educational and outreach opportunities, then goes on to describe a broad range of science that LSST will revolutionize: mapping the inner and outer Solar System, stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the structure of the Milky Way disk and halo and other objects in the Local Volume, transient and variable objects both at low and high redshift, and the properties of normal and active galaxies at low and high redshift. It then turns to far-field cosmological topics, exploring properties of supernovae to z~1, strong and weak lensing, the large-scale distribution of galaxies and baryon oscillations, and how these different probes may be combined to constrain cosmological models and the physics of dark energy.Comment: 596 pages. Also available at full resolution at http://www.lsst.org/lsst/sciboo

    Enhancing Production of Bio-Isoprene Using Hybrid MVA Pathway and Isoprene Synthase in E. coli

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    The depleting petroleum reserve, increasingly severe energy crisis, and global climate change are reigniting enthusiasm for seeking sustainable technologies to replace petroleum as a source of fuel and chemicals. In this paper, the efficiency of the MVA pathway on isoprene production has been improved as follows: firstly, in order to increase MVA production, the source of the “upper pathway” which contains HMG-CoA synthase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and HMG-CoA reductase to covert acetyl-CoA into MVA has been changed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Enterococcus faecalis; secondly, to further enhance the production of MVA and isoprene, a alanine 110 of the mvaS gene has been mutated to a glycine. The final genetic strain YJM25 containing the optimized MVA pathway and isoprene synthase from Populus alba can accumulate isoprene up to 6.3 g/L after 40 h of fed-batch cultivation

    Leukocyte Tyrosine Kinase Functions in Pigment Cell Development

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    A fundamental problem in developmental biology concerns how multipotent precursors choose specific fates. Neural crest cells (NCCs) are multipotent, yet the mechanisms driving specific fate choices remain incompletely understood. Sox10 is required for specification of neural cells and melanocytes from NCCs. Like sox10 mutants, zebrafish shady mutants lack iridophores; we have proposed that sox10 and shady are required for iridophore specification from NCCs. We show using diverse approaches that shady encodes zebrafish leukocyte tyrosine kinase (Ltk). Cell transplantation studies show that Ltk acts cell-autonomously within the iridophore lineage. Consistent with this, ltk is expressed in a subset of NCCs, before becoming restricted to the iridophore lineage. Marker analysis reveals a primary defect in iridophore specification in ltk mutants. We saw no evidence for a fate-shift of neural crest cells into other pigment cell fates and some NCCs were subsequently lost by apoptosis. These features are also characteristic of the neural crest cell phenotype in sox10 mutants, leading us to examine iridophores in sox10 mutants. As expected, sox10 mutants largely lacked iridophore markers at late stages. In addition, sox10 mutants unexpectedly showed more ltk-expressing cells than wild-type siblings. These cells remained in a premigratory position and expressed sox10 but not the earliest neural crest markers and may represent multipotent, but partially-restricted, progenitors. In summary, we have discovered a novel signalling pathway in NCC development and demonstrate fate specification of iridophores as the first identified role for Ltk

    Variant G57E of Mannose Binding Lectin Associated with Protection against Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium africanum but not by M. tuberculosis

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    Structural variants of the Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL) cause quantitative and qualitative functional deficiencies, which are associated with various patterns of susceptibility to infectious diseases and other disorders. We determined genetic MBL variants in 2010 Ghanaian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and 2346 controls and characterized the mycobacterial isolates of the patients. Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, we found a protective association between TB and the MBL2 G57E variant (odds ratio 0.60, confidence interval 0.4–0.9, P 0.008) and the corresponding LYQC haplotype (Pcorrected 0.007) which applied, however, only to TB caused by M. africanum but not to TB caused by M. tuberculosis. In vitro, M. africanum isolates bound recombinant human MBL more efficiently than did isolates of M. tuberculosis. We conclude that MBL binding may facilitate the uptake of M. africanum by macrophages, thereby promoting infection and that selection by TB may have favoured the spread of functional MBL deficiencies in regions endemic for M. africanum

    Mass Spectrometric Mechanistic Investigation of Ligand Modification in Hafnocene-Catalyzed Olefin Polymerization

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    We recently reported evidence that a cyclometalated intermediate can facilitate the polymerization of 1-hexene to append polymer chains to the termini of propyl groups of the Me<sub>2</sub>Hf­(Cp<sup><i>n</i>‑Propyl</sup>)<sub>2</sub> catalyst precursor. Herein we provide further mechanistic details on the activation of Me<sub>2</sub>Hf­(Cp<sup><i>n</i>‑Propyl</sup>)<sub>2</sub> by B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub> and the polymerization of 1-hexene mainly by applying a battery of mass spectrometry-based techniques. First, a combination of MALDI and CID fragmentation is used to characterize the high molecular mass region (up to 6 kDa) of the isolated poly­(1-hexene) material with attached metallocene. The CID fragmentation patterns are explained by relatively low-energy ligand losses and higher energy hydrocarbon chain degradation via C–C bond cleavage and 1,3-hydrogen shift reactions. Further mechanistic insights are gained by investigating 1-hexene polymerization reaction employing a properly <sup>13</sup>C-labeled catalyst activated by B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub>. Mass spectrometry analyses, along with supporting NMR experiments, indicate that polymer chain growth from the propylcyclopentadienyl ligand proceeds via a series of 2,1-insertion ring expansions of the hafnium metallacycle. In contrast, free poly­(1-hexene) chains are generated by conventional 1,2-insertions. In addition, six boron-containing species were identified from negative ion mode ESI-QqTOF: [B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sup>−•</sup>, [H–B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sup>−</sup>, [CH<sub>3</sub>–B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sup>−</sup>, [HO–B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sup>−</sup>, [C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>13</sub>–B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sup>−</sup>, and [B­(C<sub>6</sub>F<sub>5</sub>)<sub>4</sub>]<sup>−</sup>