3,989 research outputs found

    "Third places" and social interaction in deprived neighbourhoods in Great Britain

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    This paper explores social interaction in local ‘public’ social spaces such as local shops, pubs, cafés, and community centres in deprived neighbourhoods. More specifically, it examines the importance, role and function of these places, which have been described by Oldenberg and Brissett (Qual Sociol 5(4):265–284, 1982), Oldenburg (Urban design reader. Architectural Place, Oxford, 2007) as being “third places” of social interaction after the home (first) and workplace (second). It does so by drawing on data gleaned from in-depth interviews with 180 residents in six deprived areas neighbourhoods across Great Britain, conducted as part of a study of the links between poverty and place funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. The paper notes that local third places are an important medium for social interaction in these areas, although their importance appears to vary by population group. It notes that shops appear to be a particularly important social space. It also identifies some of the barriers to social interaction within third places and concludes by highlighting some of the key implications for policy to emerge from the research

    Deterministic continutation of stochastic metastable equilibria via Lyapunov equations and ellipsoids

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    Numerical continuation methods for deterministic dynamical systems have been one of the most successful tools in applied dynamical systems theory. Continuation techniques have been employed in all branches of the natural sciences as well as in engineering to analyze ordinary, partial and delay differential equations. Here we show that the deterministic continuation algorithm for equilibrium points can be extended to track information about metastable equilibrium points of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We stress that we do not develop a new technical tool but that we combine results and methods from probability theory, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, optimization and control theory into an algorithm that augments classical equilibrium continuation methods. In particular, we use ellipsoids defining regions of high concentration of sample paths. It is shown that these ellipsoids and the distances between them can be efficiently calculated using iterative methods that take advantage of the numerical continuation framework. We apply our method to a bistable neural competition model and a classical predator-prey system. Furthermore, we show how global assumptions on the flow can be incorporated - if they are available - by relating numerical continuation, Kramers' formula and Rayleigh iteration.Comment: 29 pages, 7 figures [Fig.7 reduced in quality due to arXiv size restrictions]; v2 - added Section 9 on Kramers' formula, additional computations, corrected typos, improved explanation

    Dependence of Galaxy Shape on Environment in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

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    Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4, we study the trends relating surface brightness profile type and apparent axis ratio to the local galaxy environment. We use the SDSS parameter `fracDeV' to quantify the profile type. We find that galaxies with M_r > -18 are mostly described by exponential profiles in all environments. Galaxies with -21 < M_r < -18 mainly have exponential profiles in low density environments and de Vaucouleurs profiles in high density environments. The most luminous galaxies, with M_r < -21, are mostly described by de Vaucouleurs profiles in all environments. For galaxies with M_r < -19, the fraction of de Vaucouleurs galaxies is a monotonically increasing function of local density, while the fraction of exponential galaxies is monotonically decreasing. For a fixed surface brightness profile type, apparent axis ratio is frequently correlated with environment. As the local density of galaxies increases, we find that for -20 < M_r < -18, galaxies of all profile types become slightly rounder, on average; for -22 < M_r < -20, galaxies with exponential profiles tend to become flatter, while galaxies with de Vaucouleurs profiles become rounder; for M_r < -22, galaxies with exponential profiles become flatter, while the de Vaucouleurs galaxies become rounder in their inner regions, yet exhibit no change in their outer regions. We comment on how the observed trends relate to the merger history of galaxies.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures, accepted by Ap

    Ultrafast spatio-temporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases

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    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of spatio-temporal propagation effects in terahertz (THz) generation in gases using two-color ionizing laser pulses. The observed strong broadening of the THz spectra with increasing gas pressure reveals the prominent role of spatio-temporal reshaping and of a plasma-induced blue-shift of the pump pulses in the generation process. Results obtained from (3+1)-dimensional simulations are in good agreement with experimental findings and clarify the mechanisms responsible for THz emission

    Measurements of the reverse current of highly irradiated silicon sensors to determine the effective energy and current related damage rate

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    The reverse current of irradiated silicon sensors leads to self heating of the sensor and degrades the signal to noise ratio of a detector. Precise knowledge of the expected reverse current during detector operation is crucial for planning and running experiments in High Energy Physics. The dependence of the reverse current on sensor temperature and irradiation fluence is parametrized by the effective energy and the current related damage rate, respectively. In this study 18 n-in-p mini silicon strip sensors from companies Hamamatsu Photonics and Micron Semiconductor Ltd. were deployed. Measurements of the reverse current for different bias voltages were performed at temperatures of −32 ° C, −27 ° C and −23 ° C. The sensors were irradiated with reactor neutrons in Ljubljana to fluences ranging from 2×1014neq∕cm2 to 2×1016neq∕cm2 . The measurements were performed directly after irradiation and after 10 and 30 days of room temperature annealing. The aim of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the reverse current of silicon sensors for high fluences of up to 2×1016neq∕cm2 and compare the measurements to the parametrization models

    On the size of the Fe II emitting region in the AGN Akn 120

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    We present a reverberation analysis of the strong, variable optical Fe II emission bands in the spectrum of Akn 120, a low-redshift AGN which is one of the best candidates for such a study. On time scales of several years the Fe II line strengths follow the variations in the continuum strength. However, we are unable to measure a clear reverberation lag time for these Fe II lines on any time scale. This is due to the very broad and flat-topped nature of the Fe II cross correlation functions, as compared to the H-beta response which is much more sharply localized in time. Although there is some suggestion in the light curve of a 300-day response time, our statistical analysis does not pick up such a feature. We conclude that the optical Fe II emission does not come from a photoionization-powered region similar in size to the H-beta emitting region, but we cannot say for sure where it does come from. Our results are generally consistent either with emission from a photoionized region several times larger than the H-beta zone, or with emission from gas heated by some other means, perhaps responding only indirectly to the continuum variations.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Ap

    A new Keynesian model with endogenous technology trend

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    Post-polyploidisation morphotype diversification associates with gene copy number variation

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    Genetic models for polyploid crop adaptation provide important information relevant for future breeding prospects. A well-suited model is Brassica napus, a recent allopolyploid closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana. Flowering time is a major adaptation trait determining life cycle synchronization with the environment. Here we unravel natural genetic variation in B. napus flowering time regulators and investigate associations with evolutionary diversification into different life cycle morphotypes. Deep sequencing of 35 flowering regulators was performed in 280 diverse B. napus genotypes. High sequencing depth enabled high-quality calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletions (InDels) and copy number variants (CNVs). By combining these data with genotyping data from the Brassica 60 K Illumina® Infinium SNP array, we performed a genome-wide marker distribution analysis across the 4 ecogeographical morphotypes. Twelve haplotypes, including Bna.FLC.A10, Bna.VIN3.A02 and the Bna.FT promoter on C02_random, were diagnostic for the diversification of winter and spring types. The subspecies split between oilseed/kale (B. napus ssp. napus) and swedes/rutabagas (B. napus ssp. napobrassica) was defined by 13 haplotypes, including genomic rearrangements encompassing copies of Bna.FLC, Bna.PHYA and Bna.GA3ox1. De novo variation in copies of important flowering-time genes in B. napus arose during allopolyploidisation, enabling sub-functionalisation that allowed different morphotypes to appropriately fine-tune their lifecycle
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