14 research outputs found

    Machine Learning based background correction for jet shapes in Pb-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV

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    Jet shapes and, furthermore, jet substructure observables are of utmost interest for the field of heavy-ion physics. However, the overwhelmingly large background from soft processes complicates a measurement in particular for low jet transverse momenta: Both, the jet energy scale as well as the jet shape itself, are strongly affected by the background. While promising studies on the correction of the jet energy scale and first pilot studies on two-parameter regression (jet momentum/jet shape) were already made, detailed studies of the latter are yet missing. In this project, we evaluate the performance of several machine learning algorithms and combinations of input parameters on the background correction of the jet properties

    Effects of Bias-Corrected Regional Climate Projections and Their Spatial Resolutions on Crop Model Results under Different Climatic and Soil Conditions in Austria

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    The quality, reliability, and uncertainty of Austrian climate projections (ÖKS15) and their impacts on the results of the crop model DSSAT for three different orographic and climatic agricultural regions in Austria were analyzed. Cultivar-specific grain yields of winter wheat, spring barley, and maize were simulated for different soil classes to address three main objectives. First, the uncertainties of simulated crop yields related to the ÖKS15 projections were analyzed under current climate conditions. The climate projections revealed that the case study regions with higher humidity levels generally had lower yield deviations than the drier regions (yield deviations from −19% to +15%). Regarding the simulated crop types, spring barley was found to be less sensitive to the climate projections than rainfed maize, and the response was greater in regions with a low soil water storage capacity. The second objective was to simulate crop yields for the same cultivars using future climate projections. Winter wheat and spring barley tended to show increased yields by the end of the century due to an assumed CO2-fertilization effect in the range of 3–23%, especially under RCP 8.5. However, rainfed and irrigated maize were associated with up to 17% yield reductions in all three study regions due to a shortened growth period caused by warming. The third objective addressed the effects of crop model weather input data with different spatial resolutions (1 vs. 5, 11, and 21 km) on simulated crop yields using the climate projections. Irrigated grain maize and rainfed spring barley had the lowest simulated yield deviations between the spatial scales applied due to their better water supply conditions. The ranges of uncertainty revealed by the different analyses suggest that impact models should be tested with site representative conditions before being applied to develop site-specific adaptation options for Austrian crop production

    Reaktivita vnitƙnĂ­ch a vnějĆĄĂ­ch BronstedovĂœch kyselĂœch poloh v nanoporĂ©znĂ­ch MFI: kinetickĂĄ studie H/D vĂœměny

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    The strength of Bronsted acid sites (BAS) affects the properties of 2D and hierarchical zeolites, but the relative contribution of internal and external BAS remains unknown. Accordingly, this study aims to assess the acidity of external and internal BAS in nanosponge-like MFI zeolites by comparatively analyzing hydrogen-deuterium exchange kinetics between zeolitic deuteroxyl groups and C2H6 molecules monitored by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. For this purpose, (i) a sample pre-treatment procedure was specifically developed to deuterate only internal or only external acid sites using 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (DTBP) as a masking agent and (ii) DFT modeling of surface BAS was performed. Theoretical models of the thin MFI layer revealed that the external surface of MFI crystals contains three types of BAS: (i) BAS positioned in 5-membered rings, either shielded by silanol nests, rendering the site inaccessible for DTBP or yielding a very low adsorption energy for ethane, (ii) BAS pointing into the pores, due to the presence of aluminol, which hinders DTBP accessibility, or the BAS undergoes transformation to a three-coordinate aluminium site, and (iii) BAS accessible to both DTBP and ethane. The results from our kinetics measurements showed that H/D exchange at external BAS of nanosponge MFI zeolites is faster than at internal BAS (rate constants at 425 degrees C: 3.8 10(-3) vs. 2.4 10(-3) s(-1) for external and internal BAS, respectively), but this cannot be attributed to the effect of diffusion. Therefore, the differences in exchange kinetics between external and internal BAS are given by mutual interplay of subtle differences in the corresponding activation barriers (113 vs. 117 kJ/mol for external and internal BAS, respectively) and pre-exponential terms (1.09 10(6) vs. 1.45 10(6) s(-1) for external and internal BAS, respectively).SĂ­la BronstedovĂœch kyselĂœch poloh ovlivƈuje vlastnosti 2D a hierarchickĂœch zeolitĆŻ. Tato studie byla zaměƙen na zhodnocenĂ­ kyselosti vnitƙnĂ­ch a vnějĆĄĂ­ch BAS v nanoporĂ©znĂ­ch MFI zeolitech pomocĂ­ komparativnĂ­ analĂœzy H/D vĂœměny mezi deuteroxylovou skupinou a C2H6 molekulami. Tato vĂœměna byla monitorovĂĄna pomocĂ­ in-situ FTIR spektroskopie. VĂœsledky byly porovnĂĄny s DFT vĂœpočty modelujĂ­cĂ­mi povrchovĂ© BAS

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

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    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10310^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

    No full text
    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10310^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU