44 research outputs found

    The endocrine background of meningioma carcinogenesis

    Get PDF
    Meningiomas, being mostly benign tumors, are derived from the arachnoid cap cells, their etiopathogenesis is based on various factors. The etiology of sporadic meningiomas is not yet known. Many factors have been identified as possible causes of the development of intracranial meningiomas. These include head trauma, viral infections, deletion in the NF2 gene, the use of cell phones, and sex hormones. The review is based on a endocrine factors, playing a role in meningioma carcinogenesis.             The carcinogenesis of meningioma appeals to be profoundly dependent from hormonal factors. Mayor ones, usually underlined in according to their prognostic significance, are female sex hormones. Due to this, meningiomas are twice as more likely to occur in female than in male patients. The other group of hormones appointed to play a role in meningioma carcinogenesis are adipokines in general ÔÇô and leptin in particular. Leptin secretion correlates with BMI elevation, what may explain the confirmed linking between obesity and brain tumors. The scientific literature has documented the occurrence of meningioma in five patients with CAH, but the role of cortical axis and/or ACTH secretion impairments is still under consideration. Authors didnÔÇÖt find any publication about the role of thyroid disorders in meningioma carcinogenesis. The carcinogenesis of meningioma appeals to be profoundly dependent from hormonal factors. The effects of female sex hormones and adipokines are under a significant consideration, and may be useful in severity prediction. Basic science research should be focused on ACTH secretion in meningioma and possible common genetic etiopathogenesis of meningioma and CAH

    Ro┼Ťlinne homologi gen├│w zwi─ůzanych z dziedziczn─ů predyspozycj─ů do raka piersi i jajnika.

    Get PDF
    Zaburzenia mechanizm├│w odpowiedzi i naprawy uszkodze┼ä DNA powoduj─ů wzrost niestabilno┼Ťci genomu i predysponuj─ů do nowotwor├│w. Krytyczn─ů rol─Ö w utrzymaniu stabilno┼Ťci genomu odgrywaj─ů geny TP53 i BRCA1/2, kt├│rych mutacje germinalne predysponuj─ů do nowotwor├│w piersi i jajnika. Bia┼éka BRCA1/2 s─ů znanymi czynnikami podatno┼Ťci na nowotwory piersi, kt├│re bior─ů udzia┼é w utrzymanie stabilno┼Ťci genomu poprzez zaanga┼╝owanie w procesy naprawy dwuniciowych p─Ökni─Ö─ç DNA na drodze rekombinacji homologicznej. Bia┼éko p53, produkt genu TP53, okre┼Ťlane jako ÔÇ×stra┼╝nik genomuÔÇŁ odpowiedzialne jest za utrzymanie integralno┼Ťci genomu uczestnicz─ůc w mechanizmach odpowiedzi na uszkodzenie DNA takich jak: zatrzymanie cyklu kom├│rkowego, indukcja proces├│w naprawy DNA lub apoptozy w przypadku gdy uszkodzenia nie mog─ů by─ç skutecznie naprawione. p53 i BRCA1/2 dzi─Öki swoim funkcjom nale┼╝─ů do jednych z najszerzej badanych bia┼éek ludzkich. Niemniej homologi bia┼éek BRCA1/2 s─ů tak┼╝e obecne u ro┼Ťlin wy┼╝szych. Analizy ro┼Ťlinnych i zwierz─Öcych bia┼éek BRCA1/2 ujawniaj─ů wysok─ů homologi─Ö w regionach domen odpowiedzialnych za zakonserwowane funkcje tych bia┼éek. Do tej pory badania funkcji BRCA1/2 u ro┼Ťlin przeprowadzono wy┼é─ůcznie na rzodkiewniku pospolitym (A thaliana). W genomie tej ro┼Ťliny odkryto dwa geny homologiczne do BRCA2 (AtBRCA2), kt├│rych produkty bia┼ékowe podobnie jak u zwierz─ůt uczestnicz─ů w reperacji dwuniciowych p─Ökni─Ö─ç na drodze rekombinacji homologicznej a tak┼╝e odgrywaj─ů wa┼╝n─ů rol─Ö w rekombinacji mejotycznej. Z kolei pojedynczy homolog BRCA1 obecny u rzodkiewnika (AtBRCA1) uczestniczy w kontroli cyklu kom├│rkowego i reperacji DNA. Mutanty ro┼Ťlinne w genach BRCA1/2 wykazuj─ů wra┼╝liwo┼Ť─ç na substancje powoduj─ůce uszkodzenia DNA reperowane drog─ů rekombinacji homologicznej. Dotychczasowe wyniki bada┼ä wskazuj─ů na funkcjonaln─ů konserwacj─Ö gen├│w BRCA1/2 u ro┼Ťlin. W odr├│┼╝nieniu do gen├│w z rodziny BRCA, homologii bia┼éka p53 nie zosta┼éy zidentyfikowane u ro┼Ťlin co wskazuje, ┼╝e je┼Ťli istnieje funkcjonalny ro┼Ťlinny odpowiednik bia┼éka p53 to nie dzieli on zakonserwowanych sekwencji ze zwierz─Öcymi p53.Defects in DNA damage response and repair mechanism increase genome instability and predispose to cancer. Critical roles in the maintenance of genome stability play TP53 and BRCA1/2 genes, inherited germline mutations of which predispose to breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1/2 are a breast tumor susceptibility factors with functions in maintaining genome stability through ensuring efficient double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. p53 protein known as a ÔÇťguardian of the genomeÔÇŁ is involved in maintenance of genomic integrity by several major DNA damage response mechanisms including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or induction of apoptosis when damage is excessive. By a role in preserving genomic integrity, BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53 belong to the most thoroughly analyzed human proteins. Surprisingly, BRCA1 as well as BRCA2 homologs are also present in higher plants. The homology between human BRCA genes and their plant homologs is mainly conserved in the region of their functional domains. To date, functions of plant BRCA-like genes have only been studied for Arabidopsis thaliana. In the Arabidopsis genome was found two BRCA2-like genes (AtBRCA2) were found. Their products are essential for DSB repair in somatic cells and have a role in meiotic recombination. In the absence of functional AtBRCA2, plants were sterile owing to a failure to repair meiotic DSBs and chromosomal instability. Genetic studies of one Arabidopsis BRCA1-like gene (AtBRCA1) have shown their involvement in cell-cycle control and DNA repair. Arabidopsis mutant plants defective for the AtBRCA1 or BRCA2 are sensitive to DNA cross-linking reagents, such as mitomycin C, and to DSB inducing treatments, such as exposure to the radiomimetic bleomycin. Taken together, these studies provided the first physiological evidence that BRCA genes functions were conserved in plants. In contrast to BRCA genes, homolog of the p53 protein has not yet been identified in plants, suggesting that, if a p53 plant gene exists, it might share little sequence homology with its human counterpart

    Pineal cyst-related sleep disorders ÔÇô a narrative review

    Get PDF
    The pineal gland is an endocrine gland, which is responsible for the human circadian rhythm, through the regulation of its hormone ÔÇô melatonin. The most common pathology of a pineal gland is pineal cyst ÔÇô its population incidence is estimated as 1-23%, depending on the publication. The most common symptoms of a pineal cyst include headache (87%), visual field defects (54%), nausea/vomiting (34%), and dizziness/vertigo (31%). Among the majority of patients with the asymptomatic pineal cyst, the wait-and-see strategy is proper.             According to the newest meta-analyze, the prevalence of sleep disturbances among patients with pineal cyst estimates to be 17%. The results of direct melatonin level measurements in pineal cysts remain unclear. The study focused on sleep disturbances in pediatric patients with pineal cysts and showed a significantly higher score on Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) in the domains of disorders of excessive sleepiness and disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep than the control groups. The impact of lesion on sleep quality correlated with its size.             The pineal cyst may be considered a rare, and potentially reversible, cause of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, according to the present reports (often opposite to each other), this thesis and the mechanism of its occurrence need to be further researched

    Psoriasiform lesions as a side effect of SGLT-2 therapy

    Get PDF
    SGLT-2 inhibitors (flozins) are one of the new classes of anti-diabetic drugs, used from 2012. They are highly recommended in case of intolerance or contraindication of metformin, but in Poland they are used usually as third-line drug after metformin and sulfonylurea. They growing popularity is caused by their significance in cardiovascular risk reduction and preventive role in according to diabetes complications like chronic kidney disease, or diabetes-induced dementia. The aid of this article is to summarize the knowledge on the risk of psoriasis development in diabetic patients cured with flozins.             In according to the newest studies, flozins may be considered as a pro-psoriatic factor, increasing the risk of this skin disease, especially in patients with diabetic kidney disease. But on the other hand, SGLT-2 inhibitors have significantly decreasing effect on cardiovascular risk, which is increased in psoriatic patients

    Multidisciplinary approach for a severe head burn caused by high-voltage electrical shock - a case report

    Get PDF
    In modern reconstructive medicine, personalized bone substitutes provide therapeutic hope for patients with non-standard bone defects. The study aims to present a description of a case of using a personalized bone substitute material, taking into account the vascular connections formed after a previous skin transplant.  The 29-year-old patient was admitted to the plastic surgery department urgently after being electrocuted with high voltage. Due to extensive scalp burns, a skin graft was performed in the area of previously removed skin along with a charred skull bone vault.  After a few months, the patient was qualified for cranioplasty with the use of personalized bone substitutes. The necessity to make cuts around the vascular connections present in the transplanted tissue was the main difficulty in the for the operator.  The operation was successful and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was discharged home in good general and local condition.  The presented case illustrates the need to take into account creating vascular connections with the use of personalized bone substitutes in patients after skin transplants

    Severe course of radiation-induced meningioma ÔÇö a new insight in screening for patients after radiotherapy?

    Get PDF
    Meningiomas, being mostly benign tumours, are derived from the arachnoid cap cells. Their etiopathogenesis is based on various factors, including past radiation. The presented case of a 25-year-old patient, who developed a radiation-induced superior sagittal sinus meningioma based on his past head radiation distributed during acute lymphocytic leukaemia. The tumourÔÇÖs clinical image presented at first as headache, nausea, and dizziness, computer tomography and subsequently MRI were performed. The imaging examination revealed a very extensive, contrast-enhanced tumour mass located centrally on both sides and within the superior sagittal sinus. With the most likely diagnosis of parasagittal meningioma, the patient was qualified for tumour excision. The surgery was performed successfully resulting in maximal safe subtotal resection. After the surgery, the patient developed complications including hydrocephalus, which resulted in 5-months long hospitalization. The presented case illustrated the need for increased clinical attention in patients threatened by radiation (including radiotherapy), focused on possible head lesions

    Plant homologs of genes associated with hereditary predisposition to breast and ovarian cancers

    No full text
    Zaburzenia mechanizm├│w odpowiedzi i naprawy uszkodze┼ä DNA powoduj─ů wzrost niestabilno┼Ťci genomu i predysponuj─ů do nowotwor├│w. Krytyczn─ů rol─Ö w utrzymaniu stabilno┼Ťci genomu odgrywaj─ů geny TP53 i BRCA1/2, kt├│rych mutacje germinalne predysponuj─ů do nowotwor├│w piersi i jajnika. Bia┼éka BRCA1/2 s─ů znanymi czynnikami podatno┼Ťci na nowotwory piersi, kt├│re bior─ů udzia┼é w utrzymanie stabilno┼Ťci genomu poprzez zaanga┼╝owanie w procesy naprawy dwuniciowych p─Ökni─Ö─ç DNA na drodze rekombinacji homologicznej. Bia┼éko p53, produkt genu TP53, okre┼Ťlane jako "stra┼╝nik genomu" odpowiedzialne jest za utrzymanie integralno┼Ťci genomu uczestnicz─ůc w mechanizmach odpowiedzi na uszkodzenie DNA takich jak: zatrzymanie cyklu kom├│rkowego, indukcja proces├│w naprawy DNA lub apoptozy w przypadku gdy uszkodzenia nie mog─ů by─ç skutecznie naprawione. p53 i BRCA1/2 dzi─Öki swoim funkcjom nale┼╝─ů do jednych z najszerzej badanych bia┼éek ludzkich. Niemniej homologi bia┼éek BRCA1/2 s─ů tak┼╝e obecne u ro┼Ťlin wy┼╝szych. Analizy ro┼Ťlinnych i zwierz─Öcych bia┼éek BRCA1/2 ujawniaj─ů wysok─ů homologi─Ö w regionach domen odpowiedzialnych za zakonserwowane funkcje tych bia┼éek. Do tej pory badania funkcji BRCA1/2 u ro┼Ťlin przeprowadzono wy┼é─ůcznie na rzodkiewniku pospolitym (A thaliana). W genomie tej ro┼Ťliny odkryto dwa geny homologiczne do BRCA2 (AtBRCA2), kt├│rych produkty bia┼ékowe podobnie jak u zwierz─ůt uczestnicz─ů w reperacji dwuniciowych p─Ökni─Ö─ç na drodze rekombinacji homologicznej, a tak┼╝e odgrywaj─ů wa┼╝n─ů rol─Ö w rekombinacji mejotycznej. Z kolei pojedynczy homolog BRCA1 obecny u rzodkiewnika (AtBRCA1) uczestniczy w kontroli cyklu kom├│rkowego i reperacji DNA. Mutanty ro┼Ťlinne w genach BRCA1/2 wykazuj─ů wra┼╝liwo┼Ť─ç na substancje powoduj─ůce uszkodzenia DNA reperowane drog─ů rekombinacji homologicznej. Dotychczasowe wyniki bada┼ä wskazuj─ů na funkcjonaln─ů konserwacj─Ö gen├│w BRCA1/2 u ro┼Ťlin. W odr├│┼╝nieniu do gen├│w z rodziny BRCA, homologii bia┼éka p53 nie zosta┼éy zidentyfikowane u ro┼Ťlin co wskazuje, ┼╝e je┼Ťli istnieje funkcjonalny ro┼Ťlinny odpowiednik bia┼éka p53 to nie dzieli on zakonserwowanych sekwencji ze zwierz─Öcymi p53.Defects in DNA damage response and repair mechanism increase genome instability and predispose to cancer. Critical roles in the maintenance of genome stability play TP53 and BRCA1/2 genes, inherited germline mutations of which predispose to breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1/2 are a breast tumor susceptibility factors with functions in maintaining genome stability through ensuring efficient double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. p53 protein known as a "guardian of the genome" is involved in maintenance of genomic integrity by several major DNA damage response mechanisms including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or induction of apoptosis when damage is excessive. By a role in preserving genomic integrity, BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53 belong to the most thoroughly analyzed human proteins. Surprisingly, BRCA1 as well as BRCA2 homologs are also present in higher plants. The homology between human BRCA genes and their plant homologs is mainly conserved in the region of their functional domains. To date, functions of plant BRCA-like genes have only been studied for Arabidopsis thaliana. In the Arabidopsis genome two BRCA2-like genes (AtBRCA2) were found. Their products are essential for DSB repair in somatic cells and have a role in meiotic recombination. In the absence of functional AtBRCA2, plants were sterile owing to a failure to repair meiotic DSBs and chromosomal instability. Genetic studies of one Arabidopsis BRCA1-like gene (AtBRCA1) have shown their involvement in cell-cycle control and DNA repair. Arabidopsis mutant plants defective for the AtBRCA1 or BRCA2 are sensitive to DNA cross-linking reagents, such as mitomycin C, and to DSB inducing treatments, such as exposure to the radiomimetic bleomycin. Taken together, these studies provided the first physiological evidence that BRCA genes functions were conserved in plants. In contrast to BRCA genes, homolog of the p53 protein has not yet been identified in plants, suggesting that, if a p53 plant gene exists, it might share little sequence homology with its human counterpart

    Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of IL-6 and sTREM-1 in SIRS and Sepsis in Children

    No full text
    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of IL-6 and sTREM-1 in the course of SIRS and sepsis in children with reference to routinely used CRP and PCT. Methods. A prospective study included 180 patients at the ages from 2 months to 18 years hospitalized due to fever from November 2015 to January 2017. Forty-nine children without fever hospitalized due to noninfectious causes formed the control group. IL-6 and sTREM-1 serum concentrations were assessed with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results. The mean serum concentrations of all the analyzed biomarkers were statistically significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group. Mean IL-6, sTREM-1, and PCT serum concentrations were statistically significantly higher in the group of patients with SIRS/sepsis compared to the group of feverish patients without diagnosed SIRS (N-SIRS). Based on the ROC curve analysis, it was shown that of all the biomarkers tested, only twoÔÇöIL-6 and procalcitoninÔÇöhad potential usefulness in the diagnosis of SIRS/sepsis in children with fever. Conclusion. Elevated levels of IL-6 and PCT are important risk factors for the development of SIRS/sepsis in children with fever. It seems that elevated IL-6 baseline serum level may predict a more severe course of febrile illness in children, because based on the ROC curve analysis, it was found that IL-6 is a statistically significant prognostic marker of prolonged feverÔëą3 days and prolonged hospitalization>10 days. The assessment of the usefulness of sTREM-1 in the diagnosis of SIRS/sepsis in feverish children requires further research

    A potential usage of probiotics in prevention and treatment of neutropenic enterocolitis

    No full text
    Introduction and aim. Neutropenic enterocolitis is a severe disease that affects patients with immunodeficiency and is often related with the chemotherapy of the hematologic malignancies. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Neutropenic colitis may lead to sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding and even perforations requiring surgical management. The therapy consists of antibiotic therapy, transfusions, hematopoietic growth factor treatment, usage of fluids and electrolytes, bowel rest and even surgical operations. The aim of this review is to consider the potential usage of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of neutropenic enterocolitis. Material and methods. References for that article were found through PubMed and Google Scholar, using terms: ÔÇťneutropenic enterocolitisÔÇŁ and ÔÇťprobioticsÔÇŁ, or ÔÇťgut microbiotaÔÇŁ and ÔÇťneutropenic enterocolitisÔÇŁ. The research was limited to abstracts and available full-text articles. Analysis of the literature. The most possible mechanism of neutropenic enterocolitis development appoints bacterial invasion with co-existing immunodeficiency. The probiotics appeal as beneficial agents in both prevention and treatment of neutropenic enterocolitis in according to their impact on gut immune barrier improvement. However older societiesÔÇÖ guidelines were cautious, the most modern ones appoint probiotics as a promising agent in neutropenic enterocolitis, what corresponds with results from current randomized clinical trials. Conclusion. As neutropenic enterocolitis is a severe disease we need to look for better or alternative therapies of that state. The probiotics seems to have beneficial effects in terms of prevention and treatment of neutropenic enterocolitis due to their impact on gut immune barrier. Benefits of such therapy are reflected in current societiesÔÇÖ guidelines which consider probiotics as a promising agent in neutropenic enterocolitis
    corecore