2,899 research outputs found

    Collisions, magnetization, and transport coefficients in the lower solar atmosphere

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    The lower solar atmosphere is an intrinsically multi-component and collisional environment with electron and proton collision frequencies in the range 108−101010^{8}-10^{10} Hz, which may be considerably higher than the gyro-frequencies for both species. We aim to provide a reliable quantitative set of data for collision frequencies, magnetization, viscosity, and thermal conductivity for the most important species in the lower solar atmosphere. Having such data at hand is essential for any modeling that is aimed at describing realistic properties of the considered environment. We describe the altitude dependence of the parameters and the different physics of collisions between charged species, and between charged and neutrals species. Regions of dominance of each type of collisions are clearly identified. We determine the layers within which either electrons or ions or both are unmagnetized. Protons are shown to be un-magnetized in the lower atmosphere in a layer that is at least 1000 km thick even for a kilo-Gauss magnetic field that decreases exponentially with altitude. In these layers the dynamics of charged species cannot be affected by the magnetic field, and this fact is used in our modeling. Viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients are calculated for layers where ions are unmagnetized. We compare viscosity and friction and determine the regions of dominance of each of the phenomena. We provide the most reliable quantitative values for most important parameters in the lower solar atmosphere to be used in analytical modeling and numerical simulations of various phenomena such as waves, transport and magnetization of particles, and the triggering mechanism of coronal mass ejections.Comment: To appear in Astron. Astrophy

    On quantum plasma: a plea for a common sense

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    The quantum plasma theory has flourished in the past few years without much regard to the physical validity of the formulation or its connection to any real physical system. It is argued here that there is a very limited physical ground for the application of such a theory.Comment: EPL, to be published 201

    The Magellanic Stream and the density of coronal gas in the Galactic halo

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    The properties of the Magellanic Stream constrain the density of coronal gas in the distant Galactic halo. We show that motion through ambient gas can strongly heat Stream clouds, driving mass loss and causing evaporation. If the ambient gas density is too high, then evaporation occurs on unreasonably short timescales. Since heating dominates drag, tidal stripping appears to be responsible for producing the Stream. Requiring the survival of the cloud MS IV for 500 Myr sets an upper limit on the halo gas density n_H< 10^{-5} cm^{-3} at 50 kpc, roughly a factor of 10 lower than that estimated from the drag model of Moore & Davis (1994). Implications for models of the evolution of gas in galaxy halos are discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, in press, ApJ

    Adaptive Tuning of Feedback Gain in Time-Delayed Feedback Control

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    We demonstrate that time-delayed feedback control can be improved by adaptively tuning the feedback gain. This adaptive controller is applied to the stabilization of an unstable fixed point and an unstable periodic orbit embedded in a chaotic attractor. The adaptation algorithm is constructed using the speed-gradient method of control theory. Our computer simulations show that the adaptation algorithm can find an appropriate value of the feedback gain for single and multiple delays. Furthermore, we show that our method is robust to noise and different initial conditions.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figure

    The role of farmed fish in the diets of the resource-poor in Egypt.

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    The Egyptian aquaculture industry provides more than 100,000 full-time or part-time jobs and produces the country’s least-expensive farmed animal protein. Thus, aquaculture plays an important role in both sustaining livelihoods and improving the diet quality and nutritional health of Egyptians, including a significant proportion of the 25.5% who are resource-poor. Recognizing this dual role, WorldFish has promoted sustainable growth in Egyptian aquaculture for more than 20 years. Through its work, WorldFish has identified a lack of quality data about fish consumption preferences and practices. Eager to fill this knowledge gap, WorldFish partnered with the Environment and Development Group (EDG) to study consumption of fish, red meat and poultry among the resource-poor in Egypt. This study aimed to characterize current consumer preferences for and consumption patterns of animal-source foods, comparing red meat, poultry and fish. The resulting data is meant to contribute to a better understanding of what drives demand for fish among the resource-poor in Egypt, allowing value chain actors to more successfully market their products to this segment of the population

    Localization, Coulomb interactions and electrical heating in single-wall carbon nanotubes/polymer composites

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    Low field and high field transport properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer composites are investigated for different tube fractions. Above the percolation threshold f_c=0.33%, transport is due to hopping of localized charge carriers with a localization length xi=10-30 nm. Coulomb interactions associated with a soft gap Delta_CG=2.5 meV are present at low temperature close to f_c. We argue that it originates from the Coulomb charging energy effect which is partly screened by adjacent bundles. The high field conductivity is described within an electrical heating scheme. All the results suggest that using composites close to the percolation threshold may be a way to access intrinsic properties of the nanotubes by experiments at a macroscopic scale.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Magnetic Brightening of Carbon Nanotube Photoluminescence through Symmetry Breaking

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    Often a modification of microscopic symmetry in a system can result in a dramatic change in its macroscopic properties. Here we report that symmetry breaking by a tube-threading magnetic field can drastically increase the photoluminescence quantum yield of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, by as much as a factor of six, at low temperatures. To explain this striking connection between seemingly unrelated properties, we have developed a comprehensive theoretical model based on magnetic-field-dependent one-dimensional exciton band structure and the interplay of strong Coulomb interactions and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. This conclusively explains our data as the first experimental observation of dark excitons 5-10 meV below the bright excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes. We predict that this quantum yield increase can be made much larger in disorder-free samples

    Translocation of single-stranded DNA through single-walled carbon nanotubes

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    We report the fabrication of devices in which one single-walled carbon nanotube spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs, enabling direct electrical measurement of ion transport through the tube. A fraction of the tubes pass anomalously high ionic currents. Electrophoretic transport of small single-stranded DNA oligomers through these tubes is marked by large transient increases in ion current and was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Each current pulse contains about 10 7 charges, an enormous amplification of the translocated charge. Carbon nanotubes simplify the construction of nanopores, permit new types of electrical measurements, and may open avenues for control of DNA translocation.published_or_final_versio
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