15 research outputs found

    Longitudinal Changes in Interracial Hate Crimes in the USA, 1990–2014: Does Racial Composition Matter?

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    Studies on the relationship between racial composition and interracial hate crimes are largely cross-sectional, while little is known about longitudinal developments. This paper examines the impact of longitudinal changes in the racial composition of regions on interracial hate crimes in the USA. We use official statistics on 120,000 White on Black hate crimes that were committed across 3500 regions in the period between 1990 and 2014. Applying longitudinal multi-level modelling, we find that during this period there was an overall decline in interracial hate crimes. Furthermore, our results reveal that the decline was more pronounced in regions that witnessed a significant reduction in the share of Whites. Despite concerns that increasing racial diversity may lead to more interracial animosity and hate crimes, our study suggests the opposite. As the numerical predominance of White people in USA erodes, the number of White on Black hate crimes decreases

    The nature of negative contact: Studies on interethnic relations in western societies

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    There has been somewhat of a mismatch between, on the one hand, the implicit concern in much of the public and political discussions that ethnic diversity breeds discord and conflict, and, on the other hand, the rather lopsided focus in social scientific research on positive interethnic experiences. At its core, this dissertation is an attempt to remedy this incongruity by focussing on negative experiences, in particular between people from different ethnic or racial backgrounds. Throughout this dissertation, different forms of negative experiences are studied, including criminal offences, harsh feedback, nuisances between neighbours, and aggression amongst high school pupils. By using state-of-the-art statistical methods, Kros analyses largescale surveys, network data, hate crime statistics, and laboratory experiments to gain insights about the nature of negative contact. Kros shows that while negative interethnic contact is far less common than positive contact, it does increase levels of prejudice and undermine trust and social cohesion. However, negative interethnic contact is not more likely to occur in neighbourhoods or municipalities that are more ethnically diverse. A higher percentage of ethnic outgroup neighbours is not related to more hate crimes nor to more mundane negative experiences. Similarly, high school pupils are not more likely to behave negatively towards their classmates, for instance by bullying them, if they have a different ethnic background. Instead aggression is met with aggression, and negative behaviour can be a very effective way to distance oneself from lower-status peers or to gain a higher position in the social hierarchy

    The nature of negative contact : Studies on interethnic relations in western societies

    No full text
    There has been somewhat of a mismatch between, on the one hand, the implicit concern in much of the public and political discussions that ethnic diversity breeds discord and conflict, and, on the other hand, the rather lopsided focus in social scientific research on positive interethnic experiences. At its core, this dissertation is an attempt to remedy this incongruity by focussing on negative experiences, in particular between people from different ethnic or racial backgrounds. Throughout this dissertation, different forms of negative experiences are studied, including criminal offences, harsh feedback, nuisances between neighbours, and aggression amongst high school pupils. By using state-of-the-art statistical methods, Kros analyses largescale surveys, network data, hate crime statistics, and laboratory experiments to gain insights about the nature of negative contact. Kros shows that while negative interethnic contact is far less common than positive contact, it does increase levels of prejudice and undermine trust and social cohesion. However, negative interethnic contact is not more likely to occur in neighbourhoods or municipalities that are more ethnically diverse. A higher percentage of ethnic outgroup neighbours is not related to more hate crimes nor to more mundane negative experiences. Similarly, high school pupils are not more likely to behave negatively towards their classmates, for instance by bullying them, if they have a different ethnic background. Instead aggression is met with aggression, and negative behaviour can be a very effective way to distance oneself from lower-status peers or to gain a higher position in the social hierarchy

    Fostering a Global Identity: Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and the Emergence of a Hypothetical Other

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    In this essay we argue that there are certain processes at work in the world, which could theoretically contribute to the fostering of a global identity. Even though a global identity is regarded by many social scientists as unviable, if not impossible, because an “Us” is always in need of a “Them”, we aim to transcend these conceptions. The central theory is that as humanity’s sense of interconnectedness grows and the need for a global collaboration becomes necessary in order to deal effectively with climate change and environmental degradation,a process could be set in motion whereby, as we move towards a collaborative “Us” (the unified social body), a hypothetical or historical “Them” is constructed (the divided social body). The purpose of this speculative paper is primarily to challenge prevailing, perhaps pessimistic, convictions that the construction of a global identity is impossible, even though in light of the nature of current pressing issues it is highly necessary

    Public attitudes towards support for migrants : the importance of perceived voluntary and involuntary migration

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    Immigration leads to strong and polarized public and political debates in Europe and the Western world more generally. In some of these debates, migrants are described as either having little choice but to migrate (involuntary) or as migrating out of their own free choice (voluntary). In two studies and using a social psychological perspective, native Dutch respondents were asked about their support for policies aimed at cultural rights and public assistance to perceived voluntary and involuntary migrants. Study 1 showed that stronger agreement with migration being voluntary was associated with lower policy support, while agreement with migration being involuntary was independently associated with higher support. In Study 2 the degree of support was examined as a consequence of feelings of empathy and anger. Perceived involuntariness of migration elicited feelings of empathy and therefore higher support for newcomers. In contrast, perceived voluntariness elicited stronger anger and therefore less support

    Public attitudes towards support for migrants : the importance of perceived voluntary and involuntary migration

    No full text
    Immigration leads to strong and polarized public and political debates in Europe and the Western world more generally. In some of these debates, migrants are described as either having little choice but to migrate (involuntary) or as migrating out of their own free choice (voluntary). In two studies and using a social psychological perspective, native Dutch respondents were asked about their support for policies aimed at cultural rights and public assistance to perceived voluntary and involuntary migrants. Study 1 showed that stronger agreement with migration being voluntary was associated with lower policy support, while agreement with migration being involuntary was independently associated with higher support. In Study 2 the degree of support was examined as a consequence of feelings of empathy and anger. Perceived involuntariness of migration elicited feelings of empathy and therefore higher support for newcomers. In contrast, perceived voluntariness elicited stronger anger and therefore less support

    Avoidance, antipathy, and aggression: A three-wave longitudinal network study on negative networks, status, and heteromisos

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    Our aim is to explain negative networks in Dutch high schools, using three-wave stochastic actor oriented models (SAOMs). We differentiate between avoidance, antipathy, and aggression based on how costly and visible these behaviours are. Our results show that pupils’ ethnicity does not explain negative ties. Moreover, we do not find that negative ties form archetypical social hierarchies, formed by networks that are asymmetrical and transitive. Instead, we find positive effects of reciprocity on avoidance, antipathy, and aggression, and we find no effects of transitivity. Rather than allowing themselves to be dominated by their classmates, pupils fight back and reciprocate negative behaviour. We further show that some pupils behave negatively to a lot of their classmates, and that some pupils are treated negatively by many classmates. These results require us to reconsider what status hierarchies look like. Finally, we explore the extent to which the avoidance, antipathy, and aggression networks co-evolve

    The endorsement of unity in diversity: The role of political orientation, education and justifying beliefs

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    Using data from three national surveys, the present research investigates among the native Dutch (Studies 1 to 3) and three immigrant-origin groups (Study 3) the endorsement of a shared sense of national belonging across cultural differences. The endorsement is examined in relation to political orientation and education, and sociocultural (deprovincialization) and egalitarian (autochthony) beliefs. In all three studies, a more right-wing orientation and lower education were associated with lower endorsement of common national belonging. Furthermore, deprovincialization and autochthony were independent mediating beliefs in these associations. The findings were similar for native majority members and immigrants, with the exception of the role of autochthony belief. The results are discussed in relation to future research on cultural diversity and the societal importance of developing a shared sense of belonging despite group differences

    Avoidance, antipathy, and aggression: A three-wave longitudinal network study on negative networks, status, and heteromisos

    No full text
    Our aim is to explain negative networks in Dutch high schools, using three-wave stochastic actor oriented models (SAOMs). We differentiate between avoidance, antipathy, and aggression based on how costly and visible these behaviours are. Our results show that pupils’ ethnicity does not explain negative ties. Moreover, we do not find that negative ties form archetypical social hierarchies, formed by networks that are asymmetrical and transitive. Instead, we find positive effects of reciprocity on avoidance, antipathy, and aggression, and we find no effects of transitivity. Rather than allowing themselves to be dominated by their classmates, pupils fight back and reciprocate negative behaviour. We further show that some pupils behave negatively to a lot of their classmates, and that some pupils are treated negatively by many classmates. These results require us to reconsider what status hierarchies look like. Finally, we explore the extent to which the avoidance, antipathy, and aggression networks co-evolve

    The endorsement of unity in diversity: The role of political orientation, education and justifying beliefs

    No full text
    Using data from three national surveys, the present research investigates among the native Dutch (Studies 1 to 3) and three immigrant-origin groups (Study 3) the endorsement of a shared sense of national belonging across cultural differences. The endorsement is examined in relation to political orientation and education, and sociocultural (deprovincialization) and egalitarian (autochthony) beliefs. In all three studies, a more right-wing orientation and lower education were associated with lower endorsement of common national belonging. Furthermore, deprovincialization and autochthony were independent mediating beliefs in these associations. The findings were similar for native majority members and immigrants, with the exception of the role of autochthony belief. The results are discussed in relation to future research on cultural diversity and the societal importance of developing a shared sense of belonging despite group differences
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