1,205 research outputs found

    Review of results using heavy ion collisions at CMS

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    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the laboratory provide a unique chance to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme temperature (≈150 MeV{\approx}150\,\mathrm{MeV}) and density (≈1 GeV/fm3{\approx}1\,\mathrm{GeV}/\mathrm{fm}^3) conditions. Over the past decade, experimental results from LHC have shown further evidence for the formation of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a phase that is thought to permeate the early Universe and is formed in the high-density neutron-star cores. Various QCD predictions that model the behavior of the low-xx gluon nuclear density, a poorly explored region, are also tested. Since the photon flux per ion scales as the square of the emitting electric charge Z2Z^2, cross sections of so far elusive photon-induced processes are extremely enhanced as compared to nucleon-nucleon collisions. Here, we review recent progress on CMS measurements of particle production with large transverse momentum or mass, photon-initiated processes, jet-induced medium response, and heavy quark production. These high-precision data, along with novel approaches, offer stringent constraints on initial state, QGP formation and transport parameters, and even parametrizations beyond the standard model.Comment: Presented at the Workshop of QCD and Forward Physics at the EIC, the LHC, and Cosmic Ray Physics in Guanajuato, Mexico, November 18-21 2019. Complete proceedings are available at https://doi.org/10.17161/1808.3072

    Immobilization of gluten in spherical matrices of food-grade hydrogels

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    The aim of this paper is to produce spherical encapsulates of wheat gluten in a food-grade biopolymer for preparing sheared meat analogs, to prevent instant fibrilization of the gluten during a pre-mixing step. The hydrogel should release the gluten inside the Couette Cell, as a result of the higher temperature and shear in the process. Both sodium alginate and Îș-carrageenan were used as encapsulants. Spherical particles of hydrogel-gluten mixtures were produced by means of a dripping method using an encapsulator. While the particle properties of Îș-carrageenan surpassed those of alginate in terms of controlled release of the core, the particle production using the encapsulator was more complicated. With Îș-carrageenan, a layer of oil on top of the cross-linking bath fluid, as well as through the outer orifice of a concentric nozzle were required to obtain a good sphericity of the particles. For the alginate particles the use of oil was not necessary. Gluten loadings of 7% w/w were achieved with 1.5% w/w alginate and with 2% w/w Îș-carrageenan. The water content of the particles can be easily controlled by a subsequent partial drying step. A mixture of Soy Protein Isolate and particles was sheared in the Couette Cell. Controlled release of the gluten from the alginate particles was not achieved properly by temperature or shear. The controlled release of the gluten was achieved at the processing conditions only with Îș-carrageenan. Some fibrilization was observed in the sheared product, but the macrostructure was not yet well developed. However, an optimization of the shearing process for the use of the particles may lead to an improved structure for the meat analogs. Practical applications: This paper investigated the effect of encapsulation in hydrogels on the fibrilization behavior of wheat gluten upon contact with water. A cheap and easily scalable dripping technique was used to create spherical particles in which the gluten did not fibrilize, although the coating material consists of ≄95% of water. Upon reaching the process conditions in the shearing device, the gluten is released and able to form fibers. The results show that hydrogels can mechanically protect the core and act as a delivery structure. The protective and carrier functions of the hydrogel can alternatively be used for cores like food additives (e.g., vitamins) or even to pharmaceutical ingredients, not only for the production of meat analogs, but also in other food applications

    New physics searches with heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

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    This document summarises proposed searches for new physics accessible in the heavy-ion mode at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), both through hadronic and ultraperipheral gamma gamma interactions, and that have a competitive or, even, unique discovery potential compared to standard proton-proton collision studies. Illustrative examples include searches for new particles-such as axion-like pseudoscalars, radions, magnetic monopoles, new long-lived particles, dark photons, and sexaquarks as dark matter candidates-as well as new interactions, such as nonlinear or non-commutative QED extensions. We argue that such interesting possibilities constitute a well-justified scientific motivation, complementing standard quark-gluon-plasma physics studies, to continue running with ions at the LHC after the Run-4, i.e. beyond 2030, including light and intermediate-mass ion species, accumulating nucleon-nucleon integrated luminosities in the accessible fb(-1) range per month.Peer reviewe

    Particle-flow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector

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    The CMS apparatus was identified, a few years before the start of the LHC operation at CERN, to feature properties well suited to particle-flow (PF) reconstruction: a highly-segmented tracker, a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter, a hermetic hadron calorimeter, a strong magnetic field, and an excellent muon spectrometer. A fully-fledged PF reconstruction algorithm tuned to the CMS detector was therefore developed and has been consistently used in physics analyses for the first time at a hadron collider. For each collision, the comprehensive list of final-state particles identified and reconstructed by the algorithm provides a global event description that leads to unprecedented CMS performance for jet and hadronic tau decay reconstruction, missing transverse momentum determination, and electron and muon identification. This approach also allows particles from pileup interactions to be identified and enables efficient pileup mitigation methods. The data collected by CMS at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV show excellent agreement with the simulation and confirm the superior PF performance at least up to an average of 20 pileup interactions

    Identification of heavy-flavour jets with the CMS detector in pp collisions at 13 TeV

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    Many measurements and searches for physics beyond the standard model at the LHC rely on the efficient identification of heavy-flavour jets, i.e. jets originating from bottom or charm quarks. In this paper, the discriminating variables and the algorithms used for heavy-flavour jet identification during the first years of operation of the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, are presented. Heavy-flavour jet identification algorithms have been improved compared to those used previously at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. For jets with transverse momenta in the range expected in simulated tt‟\mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}} events, these new developments result in an efficiency of 68% for the correct identification of a b jet for a probability of 1% of misidentifying a light-flavour jet. The improvement in relative efficiency at this misidentification probability is about 15%, compared to previous CMS algorithms. In addition, for the first time algorithms have been developed to identify jets containing two b hadrons in Lorentz-boosted event topologies, as well as to tag c jets. The large data sample recorded in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV has also allowed the development of new methods to measure the efficiency and misidentification probability of heavy-flavour jet identification algorithms. The heavy-flavour jet identification efficiency is measured with a precision of a few per cent at moderate jet transverse momenta (between 30 and 300 GeV) and about 5% at the highest jet transverse momenta (between 500 and 1000 GeV)

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to a top quark and a bottom quark in the lepton+jets final state in proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV

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