31 research outputs found

    Yeast Vps13 is Crucial for Peroxisome Expansion in Cells With Reduced Peroxisome-ER Contact Sites

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    In the yeast Hansenula polymorpha the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex11 and three endoplasmic reticulum localized proteins of the Pex23 family (Pex23, Pex24 and Pex32) are involved in the formation of peroxisome-ER contact sites. Previous studies suggested that these contacts are involved in non-vesicular lipid transfer and important for expansion of the peroxisomal membrane. The absence of Pex32 results in a severe peroxisomal phenotype, while cells lacking Pex11, Pex23 or Pex24 show milder defects and still are capable to form peroxisomes and grow on methanol. We performed transposon mutagenesis on H. polymorpha pex11 cells and selected mutants that lost the capacity to grow on methanol and are severely blocked in peroxisome formation. This strategy resulted in the identification of Vps13, a highly conserved contact site protein involved in bulk lipid transfer. Our data show that peroxisome formation and function is normal in cells of a vps13 single deletion strain. However, Vps13 is essential for peroxisome biogenesis in pex11. Notably, Vps13 is also required for peroxisome formation in pex23 and pex24 cells. These data suggest that Vps13 is crucial for peroxisome formation in cells with reduced peroxisome-endoplasmic reticulum contact sites and plays a redundant function in lipid transfer from the ER to peroxisomes

    Phosphorylation of Pex11p does not regulate peroxisomal fission in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

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    Pex11p plays a crucial role in peroxisomal fission. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris indicated that Pex11p is activated by phosphorylation, which results in enhanced peroxisome proliferation. In S. cerevisiae but not in P. pastoris, Pex11p phosphorylation was shown to regulate the protein's trafficking to peroxisomes. However, phosphorylation of PpPex11p was proposed to influence its interaction with Fis1p, another component of the organellar fission machinery. Here, we have examined the role of Pex11p phosphorylation in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Employing mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that HpPex11p is also phosphorylated on a Serine residue present at a similar position to that of ScPex11p and PpPex11p. Furthermore, through the use of mutants designed to mimic both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of HpPex11p, we have investigated the role of this post-translational modification. Our data demonstrate that mutations to the phosphorylation site do not disturb the function of Pex11p in peroxisomal fission, nor do they alter the localization of Pex11p. Also, no effect on peroxisome inheritance was observed. Taken together, these data lead us to conclude that peroxisomal fission in H. polymorpha is not modulated by phosphorylation of Pex11p.</p

    Hansenula polymorpha Aat2p is targeted to peroxisomes via a novel Pex20p-dependent pathway

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    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aat2p contains a peroxisomal targeting signal type-1 and localizes to peroxisomes in oleate-grown cells, but not in glucose-grown cells. Here, we have investigated Aat2p from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, which lacks a recognizable peroxisomal targeting signal. Aat2p tagged with GFP at its C terminus displays a dual cytosol-peroxisome localization in ethanol-grown cells. The partial peroxisomal localization of Aat2p persisted in the absence of the classical cycling receptors Pex5p and Pex7p but Aat2p targeting to peroxisomes was reduced in cells deleted for the matrix protein import factors PEX1, PEX2 and PEX13. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Aat2p targeting to peroxisomes requires Pex20p. Together, our data identify a Pex20p-dependent pathway for targeting Aat2p to peroxisomes

    Peroxisome retention involves Inp1-dependent peroxisome-plasma membrane contact sites in yeast

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    © 2020 Krikken et al.Retention of peroxisomes in yeast mother cells requires Inp1, which is recruited to the organelle by the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3. Here we show that Hansenula polymorpha Inp1 associates peroxisomes to the plasma membrane. Peroxisome–plasma membrane contact sites disappear upon deletion of INP1 but increase upon INP1 overexpression. Analysis of truncated Inp1 variants showed that the C terminus is important for association to the peroxisome, while a stretch of conserved positive charges and a central pleckstrin homology-like domain are important for plasma membrane binding. In cells of a PEX3 deletion, strain Inp1-GFP localizes to the plasma membrane, concentrated in patches near the bud neck and in the cortex of nascent buds. Upon disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by treatment of the cells with latrunculin A, Inp1-GFP became cytosolic, indicating that Inp1 localization is dependent on the presence of an intact actin cytoskeleton.China Scholarship Council (NO AWARD)

    Hansenula polymorpha Pex37 is a peroxisomal membrane protein required for organelle fission and segregation

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    Here, we describe a novel peroxin, Pex37, in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. H. polymorpha Pex37 is a peroxisomal membrane protein, which belongs to a protein family that includes, among others, the Neurospora crassa Woronin body protein Wsc, the human peroxisomal membrane protein PXMP2, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial inner membrane protein Sym1, and its mammalian homologue MPV17. We show that deletion of H. polymorpha PEX37 does not appear to have a significant effect on peroxisome biogenesis or proliferation in cells grown at peroxisome‐inducing growth conditions (methanol). However, the absence of Pex37 results in a reduction in peroxisome numbers and a defect in peroxisome segregation in cells grown at peroxisome‐repressing conditions (glucose). Conversely, overproduction of Pex37 in glucose‐grown cells results in an increase in peroxisome numbers in conjunction with a decrease in their size. The increase in numbers in PEX37‐overexpressing cells depends on the dynamin‐related protein Dnm1. Together our data suggest that Pex37 is involved in peroxisome fission in glucose‐grown cells. Introduction of human PXMP2 in H. polymorpha pex37 cells partially restored the peroxisomal phenotype, indicating that PXMP2 represents a functional homologue of Pex37. H.polymorpha pex37 cells did not show aberrant growth on any of the tested carbon and nitrogen sources that are metabolized by peroxisomal enzymes, suggesting that Pex37 may not fulfill an essential function in transport of these substrates or compounds required for their metabolism across the peroxisomal membrane.This work was supported by a grant from the Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) program PerFuMe (Grant Agreement Number 316723) to RS, NB, DPD, and IJvdK.Peer reviewe

    Pex24 and Pex32 are required to tether peroxisomes to the ER for organelle biogenesis, positioning and segregation in yeast

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    © 2020. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.The yeast Hansenula polymorpha contains four members of the Pex23 family of peroxins, which characteristically contain a DysF domain. Here we show that all four H. polymorpha Pex23 family proteins localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Pex24 and Pex32, but not Pex23 and Pex29, predominantly accumulate at peroxisome–ER contacts. Upon deletion of PEX24 or PEX32 – and to a much lesser extent, of PEX23 or PEX29 – peroxisome–ER contacts are lost, concomitant with defects in peroxisomal matrix protein import, membrane growth, and organelle proliferation, positioning and segregation. These defects are suppressed by the introduction of an artificial peroxisome–ER tether, indicating that Pex24 and Pex32 contribute to tethering of peroxisomes to the ER. Accumulation of Pex32 at these contact sites is lost in cells lacking the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex11, in conjunction with disruption of the contacts. This indicates that Pex11 contributes to Pex32-dependent peroxisome–ER contact formation. The absence of Pex32 has no major effect on pre-peroxisomal vesicles that occur in pex3 atg1 deletion cells.This work was supported by a grant from the FP7 People: Marie-Curie Actions Initial Training Networks (ITN) program PerFuMe (Grant Agreement Number 316723) to N.B., D.P.D. and I.J.v.d.K., from the China Scholarship Council (CSC) to F.W., and from the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek/Chemical Sciences (NWO/CW) to A.A. (711.012.002)

    Atg21p is essential for macropexophagy and microautophagy in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

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    AbstractATG genes are required for autophagy-related processes that transport proteins/organelles destined for proteolytic degradation to the vacuole. Here, we describe the identification and characterisation of the Hansenula polymorpha ATG21 gene. Its gene product Hp-Atg21p, fused to eGFP, had a dual location in the cytosol and in peri-vacuolar dots. We demonstrate that Hp-Atg21p is essential for two separate modes of peroxisome degradation, namely glucose-induced macropexophagy and nitrogen limitation-induced microautophagy. In atg21 cells subjected to macropexophagy conditions, sequestration of peroxisomes tagged for degradation is initiated but fails to complete

    Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum:A systems biology approach

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    Background: In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to produced flux, was used to study degeneration of penicillin production in a high producing Penicillium chrysogenum strain during prolonged ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations. Results: During these cultivations, the biomass specific penicillin production rate decreased more than 10-fold in less than 22 generations. No evidence was obtained for a decrease of the copy number of the penicillin gene cluster, nor a significant down regulation of the expression of the penicillin biosynthesis genes. However, a strong down regulation of the biosynthesis pathway of cysteine, one of the precursors of penicillin, was observed. Furthermore the protein levels of the penicillin pathway enzymes L-alpha-(d-aminoadipyl)-L-alpha-cystenyl-D-alpha-valine synthetase (ACVS) and isopenicillin-N synthase (IPNS), decreased significantly. Re-cultivation of fully degenerated cells in unlimited batch culture and subsequent C-limited chemostats did only result in a slight recovery of penicillin production. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the observed degeneration is attributed to a significant decrease of the levels of the first two enzymes of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, ACVS and IPNS. This decrease is not caused by genetic instability of the penicillin amplicon, neither by down regulation of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore no indications were obtained for degradation of these enzymes as a result of autophagy. Possible causes for the decreased enzyme levels could be a decrease of the translation efficiency of ACVS and IPNS during degeneration, or the presence of a culture variant impaired in the biosynthesis of functional proteins of these enzymes, which outcompeted the high producing part of the population

    Single-step gene knockout of the SUC2 gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae:a laboratory exercise for undergraduate students

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    This article describes a laboratory experiment about generating a knock-out in bakers yeast. Moreover, it describes how to embed this experiment in an Bachelors educational program
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