21 research outputs found

    Interaction of hookworm 14-3-3 with the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16 requires intact Akt phosphorylation sites

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licens

    Bicuspid and unicuspid aortic valves: Different phenotypes of the same disease? Insight from the GenTAC Registry

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    BackgroundUnicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare disorder, often difficult to distinguish from bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV and UAV share valve pathology such as the presence of a raphe, leaflet fusion, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and/or ascending aortic dilatation, but a comprehensive echocardiographic comparison of patients with UAV and BAV has not been previously performed.MethodsWe investigated UAV and BAV patients at an early stage of disease included in GenTAC, a national registry of genetically related aortic aneurysms and associated cardiac conditions. Clinical and echocardiographic data from the GenTAC Registry were compared between 17 patients with UAV and 17 matched‚Äźcontrols with BAV.ResultsBaseline characteristics including demographics, clinical findings including family history of BAV and aortic aneurysm/coarctation, and echocardiographic variables were similar between BAV and UAV patients; aortic stenosis was more common and more severe in patients with UAV. This was evidenced by higher mean and peak gradient, smaller aortic valve area, and more advanced valvular degeneration (all P¬†<¬†.05). There were no significant differences in aortic dimensions, with a similar pattern of enlargement of the ascending aorta.ConclusionsThe similar baseline characteristics with more accelerated aortic valve degeneration and stenosis suggest that UAV represents an extreme in the spectrum of BAV syndromes. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider application of recommendations for the management of patients with BAV to those with the rarer UAV.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/139976/1/chd12520.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/139976/2/chd12520_am.pd

    Impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular testing in the United States versus the rest of the world

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    Objectives: This study sought to quantify and compare the decline in volumes of cardiovascular procedures between the United States and non-US institutions during the early phase of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the care of many non-COVID-19 illnesses. Reductions in diagnostic cardiovascular testing around the world have led to concerns over the implications of reduced testing for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Methods: Data were submitted to the INCAPS-COVID (International Atomic Energy Agency Non-Invasive Cardiology Protocols Study of COVID-19), a multinational registry comprising 909 institutions in 108 countries (including 155 facilities in 40 U.S. states), assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of diagnostic cardiovascular procedures. Data were obtained for April 2020 and compared with volumes of baseline procedures from March 2019. We compared laboratory characteristics, practices, and procedure volumes between U.S. and non-U.S. facilities and between U.S. geographic regions and identified factors associated with volume reduction in the United States. Results: Reductions in the volumes of procedures in the United States were similar to those in non-U.S. facilities (68% vs. 63%, respectively; p = 0.237), although U.S. facilities reported greater reductions in invasive coronary angiography (69% vs. 53%, respectively; p < 0.001). Significantly more U.S. facilities reported increased use of telehealth and patient screening measures than non-U.S. facilities, such as temperature checks, symptom screenings, and COVID-19 testing. Reductions in volumes of procedures differed between U.S. regions, with larger declines observed in the Northeast (76%) and Midwest (74%) than in the South (62%) and West (44%). Prevalence of COVID-19, staff redeployments, outpatient centers, and urban centers were associated with greater reductions in volume in U.S. facilities in a multivariable analysis. Conclusions: We observed marked reductions in U.S. cardiovascular testing in the early phase of the pandemic and significant variability between U.S. regions. The association between reductions of volumes and COVID-19 prevalence in the United States highlighted the need for proactive efforts to maintain access to cardiovascular testing in areas most affected by outbreaks of COVID-19 infection

    2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease

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    The recommendations listed in this document are, whenever possible, evidence based. An extensive evidence review was conducted as the document was compiled through December 2008. Repeated literature searches were performed by the guideline development staff and writing committee members as new issues were considered. New clinical trials published in peer-reviewed journals and articles through December 2011 were also reviewed and incorporated when relevant. Furthermore, because of the extended development time period for this guideline, peer review comments indicated that the sections focused on imaging technologies required additional updating, which occurred during 2011. Therefore, the evidence review for the imaging sections includes published literature through December 2011

    Characterisation of hookworm heat shock factor binding protein (HSB-1) during heat shock and larval activation

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    When hookworm infective L3s infect their mammalian host, they undergo a temperature shift from that of the ambient environment to that of their endothermic host. Additionally, L3s living in the environment can be exposed to temperature extremes associated with weather fluctuations. The heat shock response (HSR) is a conserved response to heat shock and other stress that involves the expression of protective heat shock proteins (HSPs). The HSR is controlled by heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a conserved transcription factor that binds to a heat shock element in the promoter of HSPs, causing their expression. HSF-1 is negatively regulated in part by a HSF binding protein (HSB-1) that binds to and removes HSF-1 trimers bound to HSP gene promoters, resulting in attenuation of the HSR. Herein we describe an HSB-1 orthologue, Ac-HSB-1, from the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The Ac-hsb-1 cDNA encodes a 79 amino acid protein that is 71% identical to the Caenorhabditis elegans HSB-1, and is predicted to share the characteristic coiled-coil structural motif comprised of two interacting alpha helices. Recombinant Ac-HSB-1 immunoprecipitated Ce-HSF-1 expressed in mammalian cells that had been heat shocked for 1. h at 42. ¬įC, but not from cells incubated at 37. ¬įC, indicating that HSB-1 only bound to the active DNA binding form of HSF-1. Expression of Ac-hsb-1 transcripts decreased following 1. h of heat shock, but increased when L3s were incubated at 37. ¬įC for 1. h. Activation of hookworm L3s induces a five-sixfold increase in Ac-hsb-1 expression that peaks at 12. h, coincident with L3 feeding, but that subsequently decreases to two-threefold above control at 24. h. Recombinant Ac-HSB-1 immunoprecipitates greater amounts of 70 and 40. kDa proteins from extracts of activated L3s than from non-activated L3s. We propose that an increase in Ac-hsb-1 levels early in activation allows feeding to resume, but that a subsequent decrease in expression permits a HSR that protects non-developing L3s at host-like temperatures. Further investigations of the HSR will clarify the role of HSB-1 and HSF-1 in hookworm infection. ¬© 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc

    A shift in coronary care unit patient population: Ten year experience from an urban tertiary care center

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    © 2016 Taylor and Francis. The need for cardiovascular expertise in the treatment of advanced heart failure (AHF), malignant arrhythmias, and structural heart disease has shifted the role of the CCU to a more diverse and medically complex patient population. This study\u27s purpose was to analyze the temporal trends in the principal diagnosis leading to admission to the CCU in a tertiary referral hospital. Over the last 15 years, the CCU has evolved from a medical unit strictly focusing on the care of patients with ACS to an advanced cardiac intensive care unit. The trends observed at our center provide further evidence that today\u27s CCU contains a broader, more complex, critically-ill patient population

    Relationship of Electrocardiographic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy to the Presence of Diastolic Dysfunction

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    ¬© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD) is a known predictor of poor cardiovascular outcomes. Although ECG LV hypertrophy (LVH) is strongly associated with LV systolic dysfunction and heart failure, the relation of LV DD to ECG LVH is unclear. Methods ECG LVH by Cornell product (CP) criteria was examined in a cohort of 185 patients who underwent both cardiac computed tomographic angiography and transthoracic echocardiography with complete evaluation of diastolic function. The presence of DD was determined via evaluation of mitral inflow velocities, tissue Doppler imaging, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time, pulmonary venous systolic: diastolic ratio, and left atrial enlargement. Results Among the 185 patients (56% female, mean age 54.6 ¬Ī 15.6), 105 (57%) had DD. In univariate logistic regression analysis, patients in the upper quartile of CP (‚Č•1595 mm¬∑ms) had a \u3e5-fold greater odds of DD (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-11.7, P \u3c 0.001). In alternative analyses treating CP as a continuous variable, each 1 SD increase in CP (664 mm¬∑ms) was associated with an OR of 1.9 for DD (95% CI 1.3-2.7, P \u3c 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for univariate predictors of DD, the highest quartile of CP remained associated with a 5.9-fold increased odds of DD (95% CI 2.3-15.4, P = 0.001), and each 1 SD of CP with a 1.7-fold increased odds of DD (95% CI 1.2-2.5, P = 0.005). Conclusions CP LVH is a strong predictor of DD, even after adjustment for other potential risk factors and ECG variables

    Artificial Intelligence Advancements in the Cardiovascular Imaging of Coronary Atherosclerosis

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    Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. There has been a myriad of advancements in the field of cardiovascular imaging to aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coronary artery disease. The application of artificial intelligence in medicine, particularly in cardiovascular medicine has erupted in the past decade. This article serves to highlight the highest yield articles within cardiovascular imaging with an emphasis on coronary CT angiography methods for % stenosis evaluation and atherosclerosis quantification for the general cardiologist. The paper finally discusses the evolving paradigm of implementation of artificial intelligence in real world practice

    Practical determination of aortic valve calcium volume score on contrast-enhanced computed tomography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement and impact on paravalvular regurgitation: Elucidating optimal threshold cutoffs

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    © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Background The threshold for the optimal computed tomography (CT) number in Hounsfield Units (HU) to quantify aortic valvular calcium on contrast-enhanced scans has not been standardized. Our aim was to find the most accurate threshold to predict paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods 104 patients who underwent TAVR with the CoreValve prosthesis were studied retrospectively. Luminal attenuation (LA) in HU was measured at the level of the aortic annulus. Calcium volume score for the aortic valvular complex was measured using 6 threshold cutoffs (650 HU, 850 HU, LA × 1.25, LA × 1.5, LA+50, LA+100). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the predictive value for \u3e mild PVR (n = 16). Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the accuracy to predict \u3e mild PVR after adjustment for depth and perimeter oversizing. Results ROC analysis showed lower area under the curve (AUC) values for fixed threshold cutoffs (650 or 850 HU) compared to thresholds relative to LA. The LA+100 threshold had the highest AUC (0.81), and AUC was higher than all studied protocols, other than the LA x 1.25 and LA + 50 protocols, where the difference approached statistical significance (p = 0.05, and 0.068, respectively). Multivariable analysis showed calcium volume determined by the LAx1.25, LAx1.5, LA+50, and LA+ 100 HU protocols to independently predict PVR. Conclusions Calcium volume scoring thresholds which are relative to LA are more predictive of PVR post-TAVR than those which use fixed cutoffs. A threshold of LA+100 HU had the highest predictive value