287 research outputs found

    Thermal switching of indirect interlayer exchange in magnetic multilayers

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    We propose a magnetic multilayer layout, in which the indirect exchange coupling (IEC also known as RKKY) can be switched on and off by a slight change in temperature. We demonstrate such on/off IEC switching in a Fe/Cr/FeCr-based system and obtain thermal switching widths as small as 10--20~K, essentially in any desired temperature range, including at or just above room temperature. These results add a new dimension of tunable thermal control to IEC in magnetic nanostructures, highly technological in terms of available materials and operating physical regimes.Comment: 3 figures, Supplementary Inf

    Ferromagnetic resonance and interlayer exchange coupling in magnetic multilayers with compositional gradients

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    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in magnetic multilayers of type F1/f/F2, where two strongly ferromagnetic layers F1 and F2 are separated by a weakly magnetic spacer f with a compositional gradient along its thickness, is investigated. The method allows to detect the weak signal from the spacer in additional to the more pronounced and readily measured signal from the outer strongly-magnetic layers, and thereby study the properties of the spacer as well as the interlayer exchange interaction it mediates. Variable temperature FMR measurements, especially near the relevant Curie points, reveal a rich set of properties of the exchange interactions in the system. The obtained results are useful for designing and optimizing nanostructures with thermally-controlled magnetic properties.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figure

    Temperature-controlled interlayer exchange coupling in strong/weak ferromagnetic multilayers: a thermo-magnetic Curie-switch

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    We investigate a novel type of interlayer exchange coupling based on driving a strong/weak/strong ferromagnetic tri-layer through the Curie point of the weakly ferromagnetic spacer, with the exchange coupling between the strongly ferromagnetic outer layers that can be switched, on and off, or varied continuously in magnitude by controlling the temperature of the material. We use Ni-Cu alloy of varied composition as the spacer material and model the effects of proximity-induced magnetism and the interlayer exchange coupling through the spacer from first principles, taking into account not only thermal spin-disorder but also the dependence of the atomic moment of Ni on the nearest-neighbor concentration of the non-magnetic Cu. We propose and demonstrate a gradient-composition spacer, with a lower Ni-concentration at the interfaces, for greatly improved effective-exchange uniformity and significantly improved thermo-magnetic switching in the structure. The reported magnetic multilayer materials can form the base for a variety of novel magnetic devices, such as sensors, oscillators, and memory elements based on thermo-magnetic Curie-switching in the device.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure

    Precise and ultrafast molecular sieving through graphene oxide membranes

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    There has been intense interest in filtration and separation properties of graphene-based materials that can have well-defined nanometer pores and exhibit low frictional water flow inside them. Here we investigate molecular permeation through graphene oxide laminates. They are vacuum-tight in the dry state but, if immersed in water, act as molecular sieves blocking all solutes with hydrated radii larger than 4.5A. Smaller ions permeate through the membranes with little impedance, many orders of magnitude faster than the diffusion mechanism can account for. We explain this behavior by a network of nanocapillaries that open up in the hydrated state and accept only species that fit in. The ultrafast separation of small salts is attributed to an 'ion sponge' effect that results in highly concentrated salt solutions inside graphene capillaries
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