20 research outputs found

    Yeast pex1 cells contain peroxisomal ghosts that import matrix proteins upon reintroduction of Pex1

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    Pex1 and Pex6 are two AAA-ATPases that play a crucial role in peroxisome biogenesis. We have characterized the ultrastructure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome-deficient mutants pex1 and pex6 by various high-resolution electron microscopy techniques. We observed that the cells contained peroxisomal membrane remnants, which in ultrathin cross sections generally appeared as double membrane rings. Electron tomography revealed that these structures consisted of one continuous membrane, representing an empty, flattened vesicle, which folds into a cup shape. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these structures lack peroxisomal matrix proteins but are the sole sites of the major peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex2, Pex10, Pex11, Pex13, and Pex14. Upon reintroduction of Pex1 in Pex1-deficient cells, these peroxisomal membrane remnants (ghosts) rapidly incorporated peroxisomal matrix proteins and developed into peroxisomes. Our data support earlier views that Pex1 and Pex6 play a role in peroxisomal matrix protein import

    Central role of mic10 in the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system

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    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a conserved multi-subunit complex crucial for maintaining the characteristic architecture of mitochondria. Studies with deletion mutants identified Mic10 and Mic60 as core subunits of MICOS. Mic60 has been studied in detail; however, topogenesis and function of Mic10 are unknown. We report that targeting of Mic10 to the mitochondrial inner membrane requires a positively charged internal loop, but no cleavable presequence. Both transmembrane segments of Mic10 carry a characteristic four-glycine motif, which has been found in the ring-forming rotor subunit of F1Fo-ATP synthases. Overexpression of Mic10 profoundly alters the architecture of the inner membrane independently of other MICOS components. The four-glycine motifs are dispensable for interaction of Mic10 with other MICOS subunits but are crucial for the formation of large Mic10 oligomers. Our studies identify a unique role of Mic10 oligomers in promoting the formation of inner membrane crista junctions

    Structure and biosynthesis of starch. The localization of starch synthesizing enzymes with the use of immunoelectron microscopy.

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    Starch comprises two carbohydrate polymers: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose consists of a largely lineair chain of a-1,4-linked glucose units, whereas amylopectin is highly branched. Amylopectin is built of short lineair chains which are interconnected by a-1, 6-bonds, forming branch points. The branch points are clustered along the molecule. Since the branch points are concentrated in one half of the cluster, the other half comprises the lineair parts of the chains. Zie: Summary

    A Novel Method to Determine the Topology of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins in Vivo Using the Tobacco Etch Virus Protease

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    Most proteins essential for the biogenesis of peroxisomes (peroxins) that are identified to date are associated with or are integral components of the peroxisomal membrane. A prerequisite in elucidating their function is to determine their topology in the membrane. We have developed a novel tool to analyze the topology of peroxisomal membrane proteins in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha in vivo using the 27-kDa NIa protease subunit from the tobacco etch virus (TEVp). TEVp specifically cleaves peptides containing the consensus sequence, EXXYXQ↓S (tev). We show that cytosolic TEVp and peroxisomal TEVp.SKL are selectively active on soluble cytosolic and peroxisomal tev-containing proteins in vivo, respectively, without affecting the viability of the yeast cells. The tev sequence was introduced in between the primary sequence of the peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex3p or Pex10p and the reporter protein enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Co-synthesis of these functional tev-GFP tagged proteins with either cytosolic TEVp or peroxisomal TEVp.SKL revealed that the C termini of Pex3p and Pex10p are exposed to the cytosol. Additional applications of the TEV protease to study peroxisome biogenesis are discussed.

    Isolation of mutants of Hansenula polymorpha defective in the assembly of octameric alcohol oxidase

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    Alcohol oxidase (AO) is a peroxisomal enzyme that catalyses the first step in methanol metabolism in yeast. Monomeric, inactive AO protein is synthesised in the cytosol and subsequently imported into peroxisomes, where the enzymatically active, homo-octameric form is found. The mechanisms involved in AO octamer assembly are largely unclear. Here we describe the isolation of Hansenula polymorpha mutants specifically affected in AO assembly. These mutants are unable to grow on methanol and display reduced AO activities. Based on their phenotypes, three major classes of mutants were isolated. Three additional mutants were isolated that each displayed a unique phenotype. Complementation analysis revealed that the isolated AO assembly mutants belonged to 10 complementation groups.

    Glucose-induced and nitrogen-starvation-induced peroxisome degradation are distinct processes in Hansenula polymorpha that involve both common and unique genes

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    In the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha non-selective autophagy, induced by nitrogen starvation, results in the turnover of cytoplasmic components, including peroxisomes. We show that the uptake of these components occurs by invagination of the vacuolar membrane without their prior sequestration and thus differs from the mechanism described for bakers yeast. A selective mode of autophagy in H. polymorpha, namely glucose-induced peroxisome degradation, involves sequestration of individual peroxisomes tagged for degradation by membrane layers that subsequently fuse with the vacuole where the organelle is digested. H. polymorpha pdd mutants are blocked in selective peroxisome degradation. We observed that pdd1-201 is also impaired in non-selective autophagy, whereas this process still normally functions in pdd2-4. These findings suggest that mechanistically distinct processes as selective and non-selective autophagy involve common but also unique genes.

    A Stretch of Positively Charged Amino Acids at the N Terminus of Hansenula polymorpha Pex3p Is Involved in Incorporation of the Protein into the Peroxisomal Membrane

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    Pex3p is a peroxisomal membrane protein that is essential for peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we show that a conserved stretch of positively charged amino acids (Arg11-X-Lys-Lys-Lys15) in the N terminus of Hansenula polymorpha Pex3p is involved in incorporation of the protein into its target membrane. Despite the strong conservation, this sequence shows a high degree of redundancy. Substitution of either Arg11, Lys13, Lys14, or Lys15 with uncharged or negatively charged amino acids did not interfere with Pex3p location and function. However, a mutant Pex3p, carrying negatively charged amino acids at position 13 and 15 (K13E/K15E), caused moderate but significant defects in peroxisome assembly and matrix protein import. Additional changes in the N terminus of Pex3p, e.g. replacing three or four of the positively charged amino acids with negatively charged ones, led to a typical pex3 phenotype, i.e. accumulation of peroxisomal matrix proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal remnants. Also, in these cases, the mutant Pex3p levels were reduced. Remarkably, mutant Pex3p proteins were mislocalized to mitochondria or the cytosol, depending on the nature of the mutation. Furthermore, in case of reduced amounts of Pex3p, the levels of other peroxisomal membrane proteins, e.g. Pex10p and Pex14p, were also diminished, suggesting that Pex3p maybe involved in the recruitment or stabilization of these proteins (in the membrane).
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